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Ta'anis 26

TA'ANIS 26 - sponsored in memory of Fishel Yitzchok ben Shmuel (Yahrzeit: 16 Elul) by his children and grandchildren.

1) [line 2] L'VEI CHENISHTA D'ABEI GOVAR - a very large synagogue that was located in the Techum of Mavrachta, a caravan station and market near Mechuza


2) [line 10] MA'AMADOS
(a) Our Mishnah states that the early prophets divided Bnei Yisrael into twenty-four groups, or Ma'amados. Each Ma'amad consisted of Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim (according to Rashi; according to the RITVA here, the Ma'amad consisted solely of Yisraelim), and it was their duty to remain in Yerushalayim during the Mishmar in order to witness and ensure the offering of the Korbenos Tamid and the other public offerings. (According to Rashi DH Korban Musaf, the members of the Ma'amad actually helped offer the public Korbanos as well.) The Ma'amados worked in a 24 week rotation in conjunction with the Mishmeros Kehunah (see next entry), and took responsibility for the Korbanos of one week, twice each year.
(b) When each Ma'amad's turn arrived, the Kohanim and Leviyim would travel to the Beis ha'Mikdash to do the divine service. Some of the Yisraelim also traveled to Yerushalayim (or lived there permanently), but most of them stayed in their own cities. It was the role of these Yisraelim to pray that the week's Korbanos should be accepted by HaSh-m. They fasted, and gathered together in the public areas to pray, read special portions of the Torah and recite the special Shemoneh Esrei of Ta'aniyos (see Background to Shabbos 24:1).

3) [line 14] MISHMAROS
(a) The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b) Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (Rashi Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (Rashi, Ta'anis here -- for more on this, see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).

(a) Certain families donated wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash for burning sacrifices when the second Beis ha'Mikdash was built and wood was needed. In recognition of the Mitzvah they did at the time, those families and their descendants were granted the privilege of bringing wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash at certain appointed times during the year, as described in Nechemyah 10:35.
(b) The day they were to bring their Korban Etzim, the appointed family would bring Olos Nedavah to be sacrificed on the Mizbe'ach. That day was considered a personal Yom Tov for the family; the custom was not to fast, deliver a eulogy or engage in Melachah. (RAMBAM Hilchos Kelei ha'Mikdash 6:9)
(c) The families who brought Korban Etzim and the times at which they brought their Korban Etzim are listed in our Mishnah.

5) [line 32] MI SHE'TA'AH V'SHIVTO - anyone who did not know to which tribe or family he belonged

6a) [line 32] BENEI GONVEI ELI - the descendants of "the deceivers [who tricked the guards] with a pestle"
b) [line 32] U'VNEI KOTZ'EI KETZI'OS - and the descendants of "those who cut cakes of dry figs" (The Gemara (28a) explains the sources of these strange nicknames.)


7) [line 1] HUVKE'AH HA'IR - the wall of Yerushalayim was breached just before the Churban Bayis Sheni

8) [line 2] AFOSTEMUS - probably an officer of Antiyochus
9) [line 5] BEITAR - a town to the southwest of Yerushalayim, renowned as the center of the Bar Kochva rebellion

10) [line 11] YESHANEH - he should act differently (and eat less than usual or in a more modest manner)

11) [line 12] KEFIYAS HA'MITAH - turning over one's bed (so that he may not sleep in it)

12) [line 17] V'CHOLOS - and dance

13a) [line 36] HALACHAH - we teach publicly that Rebbi Meir's ruling is to be followed
b) [line 37] NAHAGU HA'AM K'REBBI MEIR - the people on their own conduct themselves according to the words of Rebbi Meir; i.e. we do not even tell an individual to follow his ruling, but we neither rebuke someone who rules according to his opinion nor revoke the results
c) [line 37] MINHAG - the accepted custom; i.e. we tell an individual to follow his ruling, but this is not taught publicly

14) [line 38] DARSHINAN LAH B'FIRKA - we teach it publicly at a Derashah (public lecture)
15) [line 39] OROYEI MORINAN - we tell an individual who asks us to follow Rebbi Meir's ruling, but this is not taught publicly

16) [line 46] CHARTZAN - a grape seed

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