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1) [line 23] "VA'YAKAM MELECH CHADASH [AL MITZRAYIM ASHER LO YADA ES YOSEF.]" - "And there arose a new king [over Egypt who did not know Yosef.]" (Shemos 1:8)
2) [line 27] LAKAH - he was punished
4) [line 32] "KI MEI NO'ACH ZOS LI..." - "For this is like the waters of Noach to Me; [for just as I have sworn that the waters of Noach should no more go over the earth; so have I sworn that I would not be angry with you, nor rebuke you.]" (Yeshayah 54:9)
5) [line 34] "U'MITZRAYIM NASIM LIKRASO" - "and the Egyptians were fleeing towards it (the waters of Yam Suf)" (Shemos 14:27)
6) [line 35] "KI VA'DAVAR ASHER ZADU ALEIHEM." - "for in the very thing wherein they conspired [did punishment come] against them." (Shemos 18:11)
7) [line 39] LISHKAS HA'GAZIS - the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court), known as the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges. The Lishkas ha'Gazis (The Chamber of Hewn Stone, TY #27) was partially built in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Great Sanhedrin was the highest Halachic authority before which the most difficult cases were brought (Devarim 17:8).
8) [line 39] "U'MISHPECHOS SOFRIM YOSHVEI YA'BETZ, TIR'ASIM SHIM'ASIM SUCHASIM, HEMAH HA'KINIM HA'BA'IM ME'CHAMAS AVI VEIS RECHAV." - "And the families of scribes who lived in Ya'betz; [Tir'asim, Shim'asim and Shuchasim. These were the descendants of Keini who descended from Chamas, the father of the house of Rechav.]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 2:55)
9) [line 42] "VA'YASIMU ALAV SAREI MISIM L'MA'AN ANOSO B'SIVLOSAM; VA'YIVEN AREI MISKENOS L'FAR'O, ES PISOM V'ES RA'AMSES." - "They set over them (lit. him) taskmasters, in order to afflict them (lit. him) with their burdens; and they built store-cities for Par'oh, Pisom and Ra'amses" (Shemos 1:11) - The Gemara interprets the first part of this verse as follows: "They placed around his (Par'oh's) neck a brick, which became a [reason for a] subjugation through placement [of hard labor upon Benei Yisrael. That brick was place there] in order to make him (Par'oh) suffer [so that Benei Yisrael would be tricked into bearing] their burdens [of bondage].
10) [line 43] MALBEN - a brick
13) [line 46] L'MA'AN ANOSO L'FAR'O B'SIVLOSAM D'YISRAEL - in order to make Par'oh suffer for [the purpose of causing Benei Yisrael to bear] the burdens [of bondage] of Benei Yisrael
14) [line 48] SHE'MEMASKENOS ES BA'ALEIHEN - they make their owners become poor
15) [line 50] RISHON RISHON MISROSES - each building would fall to pieces after being built
16) [line 2] PERICHAH - back-breaking labor
18) [line 10] SHOFSOS SHETEI KEDEIROS - they placed two pots over the fire
20) [line 12] "IM TISHKEVUN BEIN SHEFATAYIM [KANFEI YONAH NECHPAH VA'KESEF, V'EVROSEHA B'YRAKRAK CHARUTZ.]" - "Were you to lie down between the boundaries, [the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her pinions (limbs of the wing) with yellow gold.]" (Tehilim 68:14) - This chapter of Tehilim deals with the lofty spiritual level of Benei Yisrael after they left Egypt, crossed the Yam Suf and accepted the Torah at Har Sinai
21) [line 16] "...TACHAS HA'TAPU'ACH ORARTICHA, SHAMAH CHIBELASCHA IMECHA, [SHAMAH CHIBELAH YELADASCHA.]" - "[Who is this who comes up from the wilderness, leaning upon her beloved?] I awakened you under the apple tree; there your mother was in labor with you; [there she who bore you was in labor.]" (Shir ha'Shirim 8:5)
22) [line 16] SHE'MANKIR - who cleans
23) [line 17] "U'MOLDOSAYICH B'YOM HULEDES OSACH LO CHARAS SHARECH, UV'MAYIM LO RUCHATZT L'MISH'I; [V'HAMLE'ACH LO HUMLACHAT, V'HOCHTEL LO CHUTALT.]" - "And as for your birth, on the day you were born your navel (i.e. umbilical chord) was not cut, neither were you washed in water to smooth your skin; [you were not salted at all, nor were you wrapped up at all.]" (Yechezkel 16:4)
24) [line 18] (U'MELAKET) [U'MENAKET] LAHEN SHNEI IGULIN - and molds for them two round clods [of earth that are as hard as stone] (Midrash Rabah ha'Mevu'ar Shemos 1:12)
25) [line 19] "...VA'YENIKEHU DEVASH MI'SELA, V'SHEMEN ME'CHALMISH TZUR." - "[He made him ride on the high places of the earth, and he ate the produce of the fields;] and He made him suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flinty rock;" (Devarim 32:13)
26) [line 21] "AL GABI CHARSHU CHORSHIM; [HE'ERICHU L'MA'ANISAM.]" - "The plowers plowed upon my back; [they made long their furrows.]" (Tehilim 129:3)
27) [line 22] MEVATZBETZIN V'YOTZ'IN - would break through and come out of the
29) [line 25] "V'ANVEHU" - "and I will glorify Him" (Shemos 15:2)
31) [line 26] KALAH V'CHAMOSAH - a daughter-in-law and her mother-in-law
33) [line 28] MESHAPERES ES HA'VELAD - she straightened or smoothed out the limbs of a newborn baby, including relocating dislocated joints (RASHI)
34) [line 30] SHE'HAYESAH PO'AH - (a) [she played with the newborn babies and] cooed or called aloud [to them] (RASHI); (b) she would whisper [to the mother to facilitate the birth] (RABEINU CHANANEL, cited by the TOSFOS)
35) [line 31] "VA'YOMER, 'B'YALEDCHEN ES HA'IVRIYOS [UR'ISEN AL HA'AVNAYIM; IM BEN HU VA'HAMITEN OSO, V'IM BAS HI VA'CHAYAH.']" - "And he said: 'When you deliver the Hebrew women [and you see them upon the birthstool, if it is a son, then you shall kill him, and if it is a daughter, then she shall live.']" (Shemos 1:16)
36) [line 34] YOTZER - potter
38) [line 40] "VA'TOMARNA HA'MEYALDOS EL PAR'OH; 'KI LO CHA'NASHIM [HA'MITZRIYOS HA'IVRIYOS; KI CHAYOS HENAH. B'TEREM TAVO ALEIHEN HA'MEYALEDES V'YALADU.']" - "And the midwives said to Par'oh: 'The Hebrew women are unlike the Egyptian women; because they are experts (lit. midwives). Before the midwife comes to them, they give birth.']" (Shemos 1:19)
39) [line 42] "GUR ARYEH [YEHUDAH]" - "[Yehudah is] a lion's cub" (Bereishis 49:9)
41) [line 43] "[YISACHAR] CHAMOR GAREM" - "[Yisachar is] a large-boned donkey" (Bereishis 49:14)
42) [line 44] "[V'AMARTA,] 'MAH IMECHA LEVIYA, BEIN ARAYOS RAVATZAH; [B'SOCH KEFIRIM RIBESAH GUREHA.']" - "[And say,] 'Oh, how your mother was a lioness, crouching among lions. [She nourished her cubs among young lions.']" (Yechezkel 19:2) - The mother is Yoshiyahu's wife, mother of Yeho'achaz, Yehoyakim and Tzidkiyahu. The two cubs mentioned in the verses at the beginning of this Kinah (lamentation) are Yeho'achaz and Yehoyakim.
43) [line 47] "VA'TAMAS AZUVAH; VA'YIKACH LO CHALEV ES EFRAS, VA'TELED LO ES CHUR." - "And Azuvah (Kalev's wife) died. Then Kalev took Efras as his wife, and she bore him Chur." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 2:19) - Azuvah and Efras are both names of Miryam, as the Gemara explains below. When the verse states that she died, it actually means that she was afflicted with Tzara'as (RASHI), since a Metzora is likened to a dead person (Nedarim 64b).
44) [line 49] "V'CHALEV BEN CHETZRON HOLID ES AZUVAH ISHAH V'ES YERI'OS; V'ELEH VANEHA YESHER V'SHOVAV V'ARDON." - "And Kalev ben Chetzron fathered children through his wife Azuvah (lit. gave birth to his wife Azuvah) and [through his wife] Yeri'os. And these are her sons: Yesher and Shovav and Ardon." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 2:18) - Azuvah and Yeri'os are both names of Miryam, as the Gemara explains below. Her "sons" refer to her "builder" (do not read "Baneha," but rather "Boneha" -- Gemara below, Daf 12a), i.e. Kalev himself, and the Gemara ibid. explains why Kalev is called by these names.
45) [line 50] BEN CHETZRON? BEN YEFUNEH HU! - the son of Chetzron? But Kalev was the son of Yefuneh! (Bamidbar 13:6)
46) [line 50] BEN SHE'PANAH ME'ATZAS MERAGLIM - the son who turned away from the evil counsel of the spies
47) [last line] "VA'YILKEDAH OSNI'EL BEN KENAZ ACHI CHALEV, [VA'YITEN LO ES ACHSAH VITO L'ISHAH.]" - "And Osni'el the son of Kenaz, the brother of Kalev, captured it (Kiryas Sefer); [and he (Kalev) gave him Achsah his daughter as a wife.]" (Yehoshua 15:17) - During the early days of the conquest of Eretz Yisrael, Kalev ben Yefuneh offered an incentive to whomever might conquer the city of Devir (= Kiryas Sefer) -- he would give that person his daughter Achsah's hand in marriage. Kalev's own half-brother, Osni'el ben Kenaz, accepted the challenge and took the city. The Gemara (Temurah 16a) explains that the name Kiryas Sefer is not (only) the name of a city, but an allusion to the fact that Osni'el was able to "read the book" (Keri'as Sefer), i.e., restore the forgotten laws of the Torah.
48) [last line] CHORGO - his step-son