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Ta'anis 12

1) [line 5] ANSHEI MISHMAR
(a) The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon. Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (see also Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(b) On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.

(a) Sena'ah of the tribe of Binyamin, was the name of the head of one of the families who brought Korban Etzim.
(b) Certain families donated wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash for burning sacrifices when the second Beis ha'Mikdash was built and wood was needed. In recognition of the Mitzvah they did at the time, those families and their descendants were granted the privilege of bringing wood to the Beis ha'Mikdash at certain appointed times during the year, as described in Nechemyah 10:35.
(c) The day they were to bring their Korban Etzim, the appointed family would bring Olos Nedavah to be sacrificed on the Mizbe'ach. That day was considered a personal Yom Tov for the family; the custom was not to fast, deliver a eulogy or engage in Melachah. (RAMBAM Hilchos Kelei ha'Mikdash 6:9)
(d) The families who brought Korban Etzim and the times at which they brought their Korban Etzim are listed in Ta'anis 26a.

3) [line 14] L'SHAMUTEI NAFSHEI MI'BEI NESI'AH - to avoid having to eat with the household of the Nasi

*4*) [line 15] AMAR SHMUEL, KOL TA'ANIS SHE'LO KIBEL ALAV MIB'OD YOM, LAV SHMEI TA'ANIS - Shmuel does not necessarily disagree with Rav Huna who holds that one can fast a "Ta'anis Sha'os"

5) [line 17] DAMI L'MAPUCHA D'MALYA ZIKA - he is like a bellows that is filled with air, i.e. he accomplishes nothing

6) [line 21] LAHEN - but
7) [line 21] D'YESEI ALOHI MI'KADMAS DENA - who has a previous obligation to fast from beforehand

8) [line 22] YISAR ATZMO BI'TZELO - he should bind himself with a vow when he prays [Minchah]

9) [line 22] YE'ASER ATZMO - it shall be forbidden for him to eat
10a) [line 28] AMUD HA'SHACHAR - dawn
b) [line 29] KEROS HA'GEVER - the time that the rooster starts to crow (earlier than dawn)

11) [line 31] KESHE'LO SILEK - when he (or the attendant) did not yet remove the table (upon which he ate)

12) [last line] B'MISNAMNEM - when he was dozing


13a) [line 1] NIM V'LO NIM - dozing, but not dozing
b) [line 1] TIR V'LO TIR - awake, but not awake
14) [line 1] D'KARU LEI V'ANI - they call him and he answers
15) [line 1] V'LO YADA L'AHADUREI SEVARA - and he is unable to answer a question that requires contemplative thought

16) [line 2] V'CHI MADKEREI LEI, MIDKAR - and when they remind him [about what he heard], he remembers

*17*) [line 5] HEICHI LI'AVAD - how can he declare that he is only fasting a Ta'anis Yachid, and not a Ta'anis Tzibur, so that he will be permitted to wear shoes

18) [line 8] D'MESAIMEI MESANAIHU - who put on their shoes
19) [line 9] BEI TA'ANISA - the assembly place for the fast
20) [line 9] IKPAD - he became irritated
21) [line 11] APANTA - (a) (O.F. escarpet) a light-weight shoe (RASHI); (b) a shoe without a sole (TOSFOS)

22) [line 11] MECHALFEI D'YAMINA LI'SMALA ... - would switch their right and left shoes

23) [line 16] LOVEH ADAM TA'ANISO, U'FORE'A - (lit. a person may borrow his fast, and pay it back [at a later time]) a person may eat on the day that he intended to fast, and fast instead on a different day

24) [line 24] LI'SHLUMEI U'MEIZAL L'MACHAR UL'YOMA ACHARINA - to pay off his debt tomorrow or another day

25) [line 25] IKLA - came, visited
26) [line 26] IGLA TILTA - (a) a third-grown calf (that has reached one- third of its full growth and is particularly tasty) (RASHI Eruvin 63a); (b) a calf that has reached one-third of its expected *lifespan*, at which time it has reached its *full* growth (RASHI Sanhedrin 65b); (c) a calf that is a cow's third offspring which is well developed and fat (RASHI ibid., Shabbos 11a, Pesachim 68b); (d) a calf that is healthy and good to eat (TOSFOS Gitin 56a). See Insights to Shabbos 136a

27) [line 28] V'LOZIF MAR, V'LIFRA - let the master (Rav Yehoshua the son of Rav Idi) borrow the fast (eat today), and pay back [by fasting at a later time]

28) [line 32] K'ESH LI'NE'ORES - like fire is to thoroughly beaten flax
29) [line 33] MAI TAKANTEI? - what can one do to amend for fasting on Shabbos?
30) [line 33] LEISIV TA'ANISA L'TA'ANISA - he should fast on Sunday to atone for fasting on Shabbos

31) [line 34] OCHLIN V'SHOSIN MI'B'OD YOM - it is only permissible to eat and drink on the previous day (before nightfall)

32) [line 38] MASRI'IN - they blow the Shofar (with blasts of Teki'ah Teru'ah Teki'ah) during the repetition of Shemoneh Esrei, as described in the Mishnah of the second Perek

33) [line 38] MATIN - they open the doors a little (of stores that sell food)
34) [line 41] HA'NEZUFIN LA'MAKOM - that have been scorned by the Omnipresent
35) [line 44] "KADSHU TZOM..." - "Sanctify a fast, proclaim a solemn assembly, gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the land into the house of HaSh-m your G-d, and cry out to HaSh-m." (Yoel 1:14)

36) [line 46] TIHARA - noon
*37*) [line 46] V'EIMA MI'TIHARA - (Rashi was not Gores these words, see RITVA and GEVUROS ARI)

38) [line 47] MI'TZAFRA KINUFYA - the assembly of the people is from the morning
39) [line 48] ME'AININAN B'MILEI D'MASA - (a) we examine the deeds of the city [to amend any reprehensible acts, such as theft] (RASHI); (b) to abolish sins and to warn and isolate thieves and sinners and to humble powerful people (who use their power corruptly) (SHULCHAN ARUCH 577:16 citing the RAMBAM)

40) [line 48] KARINAN B'SIFRA V'AFTARTA - we read in the Sefer Torah ("va'Yechal", Shmos 32:11) and in the Haftarah from the Prophets ("Dirshu", Yeshayah 55:6)

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