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Ta'anis 8

1) [line 1] BISHVIL MISHNASO SHE'EINAH SEDURAH ALAV - because he does not remember the Mishnayos that he learned or because he learned them with mistakes

2) [line 3] YARBEH B'YESHIVAH - he should spend a lot of time in a Yeshiva (where the students are reviewing the Mishnayos)

3) [line 12] SHE'EINO MASBIR LO PANIM - that he does not show him a bright face; he is not friendly towards him

4) [line 16] "IM YISHOCH HA'NACHASH B'LO LACHASH, V'EIN YISRON L'VA'AL HA'LASHON" - If the snake bites because it was not charmed, there is no benefit to the master of the tongue [i.e. the snake, who harms through his bite]" (Koheles 10:11) - The word for snake, Nachash, is similar to the word for copper, Nechoshes. As such the Gemara interprets this verse as follows: "If the sky is as red as copper (and has become "rusty" with not doing its task -- TOSFOS), it is because of those who do not utilize their ability to pray the silent prayer (and fulfill their obligation through listening to the repetition of the Chazan).

5) [line 18] MISHTAKIN - turn red like rust (O.F. rodil - rust)
6) [line 20] LOCHASHEI LECHISHOS - people who whisper the Shemoneh Esrei
7) [line 31] "...MIKNEH AF AL OLEH." - "[The noise of the storm tells of it,] the cattle also of the rising tempest." (Iyov 36:33) - The Gemara interprets this verse homiletically as, "...the one who becomes haughty acquires wrath."

8) [line 33] MISKAN'IN B'AF - provoke the Creator's Anger
9) [line 35] IM YISHOCH HA'NACHASH B'LO LACHASH (Koheles 10:11) - (a) If the snake bites when there is no charm; (b) Can the snake bite if it was not commanded from Heaven (Rabeinu Gershom Erchin 15b)

10a) [line 37] DORES - treads its prey
b) [line 37] TOREF - tears apart its prey
*11*) [line 38] V'EIN YISRON L'VA'AL HA'LASHON - that is, the serpent replies, "What benefit does the one who slanders derive from his slander?" I have him to learn from! (RABEINU GERSHOM, Erchin 15b)

12) [line 39] "NISA LEVAVENU EL KAPAYIM..." - "Let us lift up our heart with our hands [to HaSh-m in the heavens.]" (Eichah 3:41)

13) [line 40] "VA'YEFATUHU V'FIHEM..." - "Nevertheless they flattered Him with their mouth, and they lied to Him with their tongues. For their heart was not constant with Him, nor were they faithful in His covenant." (Tehilim 78:36-37)

14) [line 43] BA'ALEI AMANAH - people who trust each other, especially in business dealings (and who trust in the Creator)

15) [line 43] "EMES ME'ERETZ TITZMACH, V'TZEDEK MI'SHAMAYIM NISHKAF." - "Truth shall spring from the earth; and righteousness shall look down from heaven." (Tehilim 85:12) - Rashi explains that "Tzedek," righteousness, refers to the rain.

16) [line 44] ME'CHULDAH U'BOR- from the story of two people who guaranteed their trust using a marten or weasel and a pit. Tosfos relates that a young man once rescued a young woman from a pit on the condition that she marry him. She agreed, and they each swore to the fact, however no one else witnessed the vows. The woman asked him upon what could she rely that he would be true to his word? At that moment a marten passed by the pit. He answered that the marten and the pit would be his trustees. They went their separate ways and years later the man violated his trust and married another woman. She bore him two sons, who met their death under unusual circumstances: one was killed by a marten and the other fell into a pit. When his wife remarked about the strange occurrences, he remembered his vow and related the story to his wife. Upon her advice, he divorced her and married the first woman, who had not violated her trust.

17) [line 45] HA'MA'AMIN B'HAKADOSH BARUCH HU - one who puts his trust in HaSh-m (and relies on Him to be his trustee, and to be the judge Who champions his cause)

18) [line 46] HA'MATZDIK ES ATZMO MILEMATAH - a person who refines his actions
19) [line 48] "...UCH'YIR'ASCHA EVRASECHA." - "[Who knows the power of Your anger?] Your strict anger is upon those who fear You most." (Tehilim 90:11) - Rashi writes that the simple meaning of the verse is, "Who knows of any strength or power that can be acquired to escape from You on the day of Your intense wrath? Just as one must be afraid of and fear You, so must he fear and be afraid of Your wrath."

20) [line 48] "PAGA'TA ES SAS..." - "You struck down the righteous one who rejoiced [in Your service] and acted righteously, those who mentioned You when Your ways brought them suffering, saying, "Behold, You are angry for I have sinned" -- they are the ones who bring salvation to the world! " (Yeshayah 64:4)


21) [line 9] "PAKADTA HA'ARETZ VATESHOKEKEHA..." - "You visit the earth, and water it; You greatly enrich it with the river of HaSh-m, which is full of water; [You provide their grain, for You have prepared it.]" (Tehilim 65:10)

22) [line 12] KUBAH - a tent; compartment
23) [line 14] "IM L'SHEVET IM L'ARTZO..." - "He causes it to come, whether for punishment, or for His land, or for love." (Iyov 37:13)

24a) [line 18] BOROS - wells that are dug in the ground
b) [line 18] SHICHIN - elongated ditches
c) [line 18] ME'AROS - caves
25) [line 19] KAFNA U'MOSANA - famine and pestilence (death)
26) [line 21] V'KAFNA NISBOL - and we will endure the famine
27) [line 23] SOV'A - satiation, plenty
28) [line 28] "V'RACHAMIN L'MIV'EI..." - "That they should seek mercy from the G-d of heaven concerning this mystery; that Daniel and his fellows should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon." (Daniel 2:18)

29) [line 30] GAZUR GEZEIRAH V'GAZUR D'LO L'MEISAV B'SA'ANISA - (a) the Romans mandated a decree and the content of the decree was that the Jews should not fast. Their intention was that no rain should fall on Eretz Yisrael. (RASHI); (b) the Romans decreed Shemad (religious persecution) against the Jews and they also decreed that the Jews may not fast. Their intention was that the decree should not be abolished. (RABBENU GERSHOM)

30) [line 31] NEKABLEI ILAVAN - we will accept the fast upon us now [and we will actually fast after the decree is abolished]

31) [line 40] D'TZARICH L'VERYASA - that it is necessary for all living creatures
32) [line 45] HE'SAMUY MIN HE'AYIN - that is hidden from the eye; i.e. uncounted
33) [line 46] BA'ASAMECHA - in your storehouses
34) [line 47] LA'MUD ES GORNO - to measure his pile of threshed grain
35) [line 53] KA'AFIKIM BA'NEGEV - like streams in the desert
36) [line 54] GAYASOS - bands of marauding troops
37) [line 55] "TELAMEHA RAVEI NACHES GEDUDEHA..." - "You water its furrows abundantly which brings comfort to the legions; [You make it soft with showers; You bless its growth.]" (Tehilim 65:11)

38) [last line] "NESI'IM V'RU'ACH V'GESHEM AYIN..." - "Whoever boasts of a gift which he did not give is like clouds and wind without rain." (Mishlei 25:14) - Rashi offers an alternate explanation, where the word "Ayin" refers to the clouds, the wind and the rain, and as such the verse means, "Whoever boasts of a gift which he did not give is like a year without clouds, wind or rain."

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