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Ta'anis 6

TA'ANIS 6 & 7 - dedicated by Dovid and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva l'Iluy Nishmas his late mother, Mrs. Seren Rubner. May Hashem grant all of her offspring with joy, fulfillment, and all that they need!

1) [line 4] SHE'MORAH - that teaches or warns
2) [line 5] L'HATI'ACH GAGOSEIHEN - to plaster their roofs with mortar
3) [line 7] SHE'MERAVAH - quenches
4) [line 8] "TELAMEHA RAVEH..." - "You water its furrows abundantly to comfort its inhabitants; You make it soft with showers; You bless its growth." (Tehilim 65:11)

5) [line 10] B'ZA'AF - with fury
6) [line 13] SAKA'IN - a type of locust
7) [line 14] "U'VENEI TZIYON..." - "Children of Tziyon, exult and be glad with HaSh-m, your G-d, for He has given you a teacher for righteousness, and He has brought down the rain for you - the early rain and the late rain - in the first [month]." (Yoel 2:23) - All of the rain that that generation needed in order for the barley for the Korban ha'Omer to grow came down on Rosh Chodesh Nisan - 15 days before the Korban ha'Omer was brought.

8) [line 19] SHE'MEMALE TEVU'AH B'KASHE'HA - that causes the grains to ripen fully while on their stalks

9) [line 20] MELILOS - ears of grains
b) [line 20] KASHIN - stalks
10) [line 25] HA'BECHIRAH - the first rain of the early rains
11) [line 25] AFEILAH - the last rain of the early rains
12) [line 28] YECHIDIM - the singular, most pious Torah sages of the generation
13) [line 32] ATAH MONEH VAHEN REVI'AH RISHONAH U'SHNIYAH U'SHELISHIS - you may count them as the first, second and last rains of the early rains


14) [line 4] LEKET
"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks that have fallen from the sickle or from the reaper's hand during the harvest. Such stalks may not be retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9-10), "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." ("Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the harvest ... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger.") If three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.

15) [line 4] SHIKCHAH
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19).

16) [line 4] PE'AH
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." (Vayikra 19:9-10) - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field ... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."

17) [line 4] NEMUSHOS - the last troop of gleaners

18) [line 5] PERET
Individual (one or two) grapes that fall during the harvest may not be gathered by the owner of the vine but must be left for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "...u'Feret Karmecha Lo Selaket, le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." ("...nor shall you gather the fallen grapes of your vineyard; you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger.")

19) [line 5] OLELOS
Olelos are incompletely-formed grape clusters, in which no grapes hang from the tip of the central stem, and the grapes on the side-stems that part from the central stem do not lie on one another. These clusters must be left behind on the vine for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "v'Charmecha Lo Se'olel...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." ("And you shall not glean your vineyard...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger.")

20) [line 7] SAVEI D'AZLEI A'TIGRA - (a) old people who walk slowly and search carefully (RASHI); (b) old people who walk while leaning on a staff (RABEINU CHANANEL, TOSFOS)

21) [line 8] LIKUTEI BASAR LIKUTEI - the gleaners who have their children glean behind them

22) [line 9] SHEVILEI HA'RESHUS - the paths through the fields that people use as shortcuts

23) [line 11] PEIROS SHEVI'IS (BI'UR)
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b) In addition, when each type of produce is no longer available in the fields, there is an obligation to perform Bi'ur on it and on all of the items for which it was exchanged (Pesachim 52a). The Rishonim argue with regard to the definition of Bi'ur.

1. The Ramban (to Vayikra 25:7) writes that one is obligated to remove the items from his house and *declare them Hefker (ownerless)* such that they may be taken by any passerby. (One may later reacquire ownership of the produce.) If Bi'ur was not done at the right time, the produce becomes Asur b'Hana'ah mid'Rabanan.
2. According to the Rambam (Hilchos Shemitah 7:3), Bi'ur means to destroy the produce completely. At the time that it is no longer available in the fields, eating it becomes prohibited.
3. The Ra'avad (ibid.) rules that there are two types of Bi'ur. At the time that an item of produce becomes unavailable in the fields *in a certain place*, one must declare it Hefker (like the opinion of the Ramban). At the time that it becomes unavailable *in all of Eretz Yisrael*, one must destroy the produce completely (like the opinion of the Rambam).
24) [line 16] KALEH LI'VHEMTECHA MIN HA'BAYIS - remove from your house that [Shemitah produce] with which you feed your animals

25) [line 18] MITRA BA'ALAH D'AR'A - rain is the "husband" of the land
26) [line 20] SHE'TERED BA'KARKA TEFACH - so that they moisten the ground to a depth of one Tefach, approximately 8 cm (3.15 in.) or 9.6 cm (3.78 in.), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

27) [line 21] KEDEI LA'GUF BAH PI CHAVIS - [the ground becomes soft enough] to provide mud to seal a barrel

28) [line 22] EIN BAHEM MISHUM V'ATZAR - that year did not receive the curse of "...v'Atzar es ha'Shamayim..." - "...and He shall close the skies..." (Devarim 11:17)

29) [line 22] KODEM V'ATZAR - before the evening reading of Keri'as Shema, in which the verse "v'Atzar" is found

30) [line 24] HANEI ANANEI D'TZAFRA - the rain clouds of the morning
31) [line 26] B'MIFTACH BAVEI MITRA - when rain falls [before morning] at the opening of the gates [of the cities]

32) [line 27] BAR CHAMRA - a donkey driver
33) [line 27] MOCH SAKEICH V'GANEI - fold up your grain sack and go to sleep
34) [line 27] D'KATIR B'EIVA - that the skies are filled with thick clouds
b) [line 28] D'KATIR B'ANANEI - that the skies are filled with light clouds
35) [line 28] TAVA L'SHATA D'TEVES ARMALTA - it is a good sign for the year if the month of Teves has no rain

36) [line 29] D'LO BAIREI TARBITZEI - (a) so that the great Yeshivos that spread Torah learning not become empty (without students), should the roads become impassible; (b) so that the gardens (that contain plants that do not need a lot of rainfall) not lie waste

37) [line 29] D'LO SHAKIL SHUDFANA - so that the crops not become afflicted with blight

38) [line 30] D'TEVES MENAVALTA - if the month of Teves is [stormy, causing the roads to become] muddy

39) [line 34] "...CHELKAH ACHAS TIMATER..." - "...one field was rained upon..." (Amos 4:7)

40) [line 35] D'ASA KED'MIBA'EI LEI - that rain fell in a sufficient amount in the sectors of the land that received rain

41) [line 36] TEHEI MEKOM MATAR - becomes a place of [overabundant] rain
42) [line 37] MISHE'YETZEI CHASAN LIKRAS KALAH - (a) such that the strong rain causes a drop of water from a puddle to splash out to meet a falling drop of rain; (b) such that the water flowing out of one marketplace meets the water flowing out of another marketplace

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