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Sotah 42

SOTAH 42 - This Daf has been sponsored through the generous donation of Rabbi Heshy Wolf of Brooklyn N.Y.



(a) When overseas, they spoke of a 'Galmudah' - they were referring to a Nidah.

(b) The acronym of 'Galmudah' is - 'Gemulah Dah (mi'Ba'alah' - 'this woman is separated from her husband').

(c) Rebbi Elazar therefore explained the Pasuk "Ki Adas Chenef Galmud" to mean - that a community which is prone to flattery is disgusting (in the Eyes of Hashem) like a Nidah (is spiritually, to a man).

(d) Such a community, he says - will ultimately be exiled (as the Pasuk writes in Yeshayah "ve'Amarta bi'Levavecha ... va'Ani Shechulah *ve'Galmudah Golah* ve'Surah").

2) Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba lists four groups who will not receive the Shechinah. Two of them are the group of mockers and that of flatterers. He derives the third group from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Dover *Shekarim* Lo Yikon le'Neged Einav". Whilst the fourth group he derives from the Pasuk there "Ki Lo Keil Chafetz Resha Atah, *Lo Yegurcha Ra*". "Ra" refers to - the group of people who speak Lashon ha'Ra (because the Pasuk wrote there earlier "Ki Ein be'Fihu Nechonah").

***** Hadran Alach Eilu Ne'emarin *****

***** Perek Mashu'ach Milchamah *****


(a) The Pasuk "ve'Hayah ke'Koravchem el ha'Milchamah ve'Nigash ha'Kohen" is referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah. We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Diber el ha'Am" - that he had to speak in Lashon ha'Kodesh (as will be explained later).
2. ... "ve'Amar Aleihem Sh'ma Yisrael ... *al Oyveichem* - that the enemies with whom we are about to fight are real enemies and must be treated without mercy in battle, unlike the way we treat our fellow Jews in the case of a civil war).
(b) Oded ha'Navi told Pekach ben Remalyahu (King of Yisrael) after Yisrael had defeated Yehudah and taken captives - that, rather than retain them as slaves, as had been their intention, they should send them home.

(c) Pekach did indeed obey the Navi's instructions - even going as far as to cloth and feed them and return them to good shape before accompanying them to Yericho and returning home.

(d) W should not treat our enemies in the same way - because that is not the way they would treat us if we fell into their hands.

4) "Al Yeirach Levavchem, Al Tir'u ve'Al Tachpezu, ve'Al Ta'artzu Mipneihem" refers to the various war-cries and noises which the armies of those days used to perform in an effort to instill fear into their enemies. The significance of the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Ki Hashem Elokeichen ha'Holech Imachem" - is to strengthen the soldiers' faith, to remind them that whereas their enemies would come on the strength of their heroes and gods, Yisrael come with the strength of Hashem.
2. ... "Ki Hashem Elokeichem be'Kirbechem" - (which refers to the Aron which traveled with them to war) is to remind them that they had the strength of the Torah (synonymous with that of Hashem) on their side.
(a) We just quoted the Pasuk "ve'Nigash ha'Kohen ve'Diber el ha'Am" which we interpret in light of the Pasuk "ve'Dibru ha'Shotrim". We learn from this latter Pasuk - that it is not an ordinary Kohen who makes the announcements, but the Mashu'ach Milchamah, because, just like the officers have been appointed to a high position, so too, is the Pasuk talking about a Kohen who has been appointed to a high position in the hierarchy of the Kehunah.

(b) We know that the Pasuk is referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah and not ...

1. ... to the Kohen Gadol himself - because, like an officer, he has someone who is above him, whereas a Kohen Gadol does not.
2. ... the S'gan Kohen Gadol - because a S'gan Kohen Gadol only acts as a reservist, in case the Kohen Gadol becomes unfit, but does actually serve in that capacity.
(c) Despite the fact that the king is superior to the Kohen Gadol, the Pasuk cannot be referring to the Kohen Gadol - because he is not his superior in his capacity as Kohen (like the general is to the officer and the Kohen Gadol to the Mashu'ach Milchamah).

(d) The reason that the Mashu'ach Milchamah began his words with "Sh'ma Yisrael" is contained in a statement made by Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai - who quoted Hashem as saying that even if the only merit of K'lal Yisrael is the recitation of the Sh'ma morning and evening, that will suffice to stop them from defeat at the hand of their enemies.

(a) The Mashu'ach Milchamah spoke twice to the soldiers, once on the border (before the battle commenced), and once on the battlefield. He announced ...
1. ... on the border - that those who are expected to return from the battle-front (i.e. someone who had built a house and not consecrated it, who had planted a vineyard and not yet brought Neta Revai (to Yerushalayim in the fourth year), who had betrothed a woman and not married her, or someone who was afraid of war).
2. ... on the battlefield - that one should not be afraid or broken-hearted ... when the enemy employs its scare-tactics.
(b) The four expressions that we quoted in our Mishnah corresponded to the four things that the enemy used to do. The meaning of ...
1. ... 'Magifin' is - clashing their shields.
2. ... 'Meri'in' is - blowing their trumpets.
3. ... 'Tzevachin' is - war cries.
4. 'Romsin' is - when the enemy make their horses prance around, causing them to stamp their hoofs and neigh.
(c) The clanging of the enemies swords and pounding of their nailed boots are not counted - because these were performed in the course of war and not as scare tactics.



(a) When Goli'as declared "B'ru Lachem *Ish* ve'Yered Elai" - he was referring to Hashem (the Ish Milchamah), as if he was issuing Him a challenge.

(b) That explains his name, says Rebbi Yochanan - which is a derivative of 'Giluy Panim' (meaning Chutzpah, because he had the temerity to challenge Hashem).

(c) That explains why Hashem sent His champion "ve'David ben *Ish* Efrati".

(a) Goli'as inadvertently hinted at his own downfall, says Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Rebbi Meir, when he said ...
1. ... "B'ru Lachem Ish ve'Yered Elai" - (rather than "va'Yilachem Iti"), implying that David would come down on him and defeat him (see also Agados Maharsha).
2. ... "Im Yuchal Lehilachem Iti ve'Hikani" - because this implies that whoever accepts the challenge will defeat him (despite the fact that he continued "ve'Im Ani Uchal Lo ve'Hikisiv").
3. ... "ha'Kelev Anochi Ki Atah Ba Elai be'Maklos" - because it is not the way of a national hero to make such an uncalled-for comparison, and it suggests that he would end up like a dog that has been beaten with a stick.
(b) It is true that David too, began his response with "Atah Ba Elai be'Cherev u've'Chanis u've'Chidon" - but he continued 'va'Anochi Ba Eilecha be'Shem Hashem Tzeva'kos ... " (stressing the contrast, but in no way intimating his own defeat).

(c) The significance of the Pasuk "va'Yigash ha'Pelishti *Hashkem ve'Ha'arev*" - is the fact that Goli'as tried to disturb Yisrael from reciting the Sh'ma each morning and evening, says Rebbi Yochanan.

(d) He also explains that Goli'as was given the merit to make his stand for forty days - because of the forty days delay before the Torah was given (from the sixth of Sivan until Shiv'ah-Asar be'Tamuz. See also Agados Maharsha).

(a) According to Rav, the Pasuk refers to Goli'as as "Ish ha'Beinayim", because he was 'Mevuneh mi'Kol Mum' (perfectly built, free of blemish). According to Shmuel - it was because, one of four brothers, he was neither the tallest, nor the smallest, but in between.

(b) In the Beis-ha'Medrash of Rebbi Shilo, they ascribed it to the fact that he was shaped like a building. Rebbi Yochanan explains 'Bar Me'ah Papi ve'Chada Na'ani' - meaning that he came *from between* many fathers, because many men were intimate with Orpah (the night after she left Naomi, as Chazal have taught).

(c) And his name was Goli'as because he hailed from Gas. The Beraisa, quoted by Rav Yosef however, explains 'Gas' metaphorically - to mean that many men threshed her like a wine-press.

(d) His mother is sometimes called Orpah and sometimes, Harafah. Rav and Shmuel argue over this. One of them says that her real name was Harafah, and that she was sometimes called Orpah because she made herself Hefker for men to have relations with her unnaturally (face to back of neck [from the word 'Oref', meaning the back of a neck]). The other one says - that her real name was Orpah, and that she was sometimes called Harafah because the men threshed her like beaten wheat (Harifos, as we find in Shmuel and in Mishlei).

(a) Saf, Madon, Goli'as and Yishbi be'Nov - were all sons of Orpah, says Rav Chisda.

(b) They were all killed - by David or his servants, he adds.

(c) The Pasuk writes "va'Tishak Orpah la'Chamosah, ve'Rus Davkah Bah" - to which Hashem responded 'Let the sons of the kissed one come and fall into hands of the sons of the one who cleaved'.

(d) Orpah cried twice when departing from Na'omi (shedding a total of four tears, one tear from each eye on each occasion) - that is why, says Rava, she merited having four mighty sons.

(a) Once, describing Goli'as spear, the Navi refers to it as "Eitz Chaniso", and once, as "Cheitz Chaniso". "Cheitz" a derivative of 'Chatzi' - hints that the Pasuk had not even described half of Goli'as strength.

(b) The Pasuk took the trouble to describe his strength, at least in part - to teach us David ha'Melech's bravery, that despite his might, he took him on, in defense of Hashem's honor and that of Yisrael.

(c) The hero of Amon is once referred to as Shovach, and once, as Shofach. Rav and Shmuel argue over this. According to one of them, his real name was Shofach, and he was called Shovach because he was shaped like a dove-cot. According to the other one - his real name was Shovach, and the Pasuk sometimes calls him Shofach because whoever saw him, sullied himself out of fear.

(a) Regarding the soldiers of Nevuchadnetzar, the Pasuk writes in Yirmiyah "Ashpaso ke'Kever Pasu'ach Kulam Giborim". Rav or Shmuel (some say Rebbi Ami or Rebbi Asi) argue over this. One of them explains that when one of the soldiers would shoot an arrow, it would leave piles of corpses. According to the other one - the Pasuk is referring to their capacity in the sphere of eating. They were able to eat so much he says, that they would leave piles of body waste.

(b) We know that this was not due to illness - because the Pasuk writes "Kulam Giborim".

(c) We can extrapolate from the fact that we need to answer this - that under normal circumstances, excessive body waste is considered an illness. The ramifications of this statement are - that a person who does experience excessive body-waste, should Daven for a speedy recovery.

(a) Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi argue over the Pasuk in Mishlei "Da'agah be'Lev Ish Yasichenah". One of them explains that he should remove what is troubling him from his heart ('Yasichenah mi'Libo'). According to the second opinion, ('Yasichenah la'Acheirim') he should speak it out to others.

(b) When the Mashu'ach Milchamah told the soldiers that they were unique, because Hashem their G-d went with them into battle - he was referring to the four-letter Hashem as well as His substitute Names, were placed in the Aron.

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