ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sotah 42
SOTAH 42 - This Daf has been sponsored through the generous donation of
Rabbi Heshy Wolf of Brooklyn N.Y.
(a) When overseas, they spoke of a 'Galmudah' - they were referring to a
Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba lists four groups who will not receive the Shechinah.
Two of them are the group of mockers and that of flatterers. He derives the
third group from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Dover *Shekarim* Lo Yikon le'Neged
Einav". Whilst the fourth group he derives from the Pasuk there "Ki Lo Keil
Chafetz Resha Atah, *Lo Yegurcha Ra*". "Ra" refers to - the group of people
who speak Lashon ha'Ra (because the Pasuk wrote there earlier "Ki Ein
(b) The acronym of 'Galmudah' is - 'Gemulah Dah (mi'Ba'alah' - 'this woman
is separated from her husband').
(c) Rebbi Elazar therefore explained the Pasuk "Ki Adas Chenef Galmud" to
mean - that a community which is prone to flattery is disgusting (in the
Eyes of Hashem) like a Nidah (is spiritually, to a man).
(d) Such a community, he says - will ultimately be exiled (as the Pasuk
writes in Yeshayah "ve'Amarta bi'Levavecha ... va'Ani Shechulah *ve'Galmudah
***** Hadran Alach Eilu Ne'emarin *****
***** Perek Mashu'ach Milchamah *****
(a) The Pasuk "ve'Hayah ke'Koravchem el ha'Milchamah ve'Nigash ha'Kohen" is
referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah. We learn from the Pasuk ...
"Al Yeirach Levavchem, Al Tir'u ve'Al Tachpezu, ve'Al Ta'artzu Mipneihem"
refers to the various war-cries and noises which the armies of those days
used to perform in an effort to instill fear into their enemies. The
significance of the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Diber el ha'Am" - that he had to speak in Lashon ha'Kodesh (as
will be explained later).
(b) Oded ha'Navi told Pekach ben Remalyahu (King of Yisrael) after Yisrael
had defeated Yehudah and taken captives - that, rather than retain them as
slaves, as had been their intention, they should send them home.
2. ... "ve'Amar Aleihem Sh'ma Yisrael ... *al Oyveichem* - that the enemies
with whom we are about to fight are real enemies and must be treated without
mercy in battle, unlike the way we treat our fellow Jews in the case of a
(c) Pekach did indeed obey the Navi's instructions - even going as far as to
cloth and feed them and return them to good shape before accompanying them
to Yericho and returning home.
(d) W should not treat our enemies in the same way - because that is not the
way they would treat us if we fell into their hands.
1. ... "Ki Hashem Elokeichen ha'Holech Imachem" - is to strengthen the
soldiers' faith, to remind them that whereas their enemies would come on the
strength of their heroes and gods, Yisrael come with the strength of Hashem.
2. ... "Ki Hashem Elokeichem be'Kirbechem" - (which refers to the Aron which
traveled with them to war) is to remind them that they had the strength of
the Torah (synonymous with that of Hashem) on their side.
(a) We just quoted the Pasuk "ve'Nigash ha'Kohen ve'Diber el ha'Am" which we
interpret in light of the Pasuk "ve'Dibru ha'Shotrim". We learn from this
latter Pasuk - that it is not an ordinary Kohen who makes the announcements,
but the Mashu'ach Milchamah, because, just like the officers have been
appointed to a high position, so too, is the Pasuk talking about a Kohen who
has been appointed to a high position in the hierarchy of the Kehunah.
(b) We know that the Pasuk is referring to the Mashu'ach Milchamah and not
1. ... to the Kohen Gadol himself - because, like an officer, he has someone
who is above him, whereas a Kohen Gadol does not.
(c) Despite the fact that the king is superior to the Kohen Gadol, the Pasuk
cannot be referring to the Kohen Gadol - because he is not his superior in
his capacity as Kohen (like the general is to the officer and the Kohen
Gadol to the Mashu'ach Milchamah).
2. ... the S'gan Kohen Gadol - because a S'gan Kohen Gadol only acts as a
reservist, in case the Kohen Gadol becomes unfit, but does actually serve in
(d) The reason that the Mashu'ach Milchamah began his words with "Sh'ma
Yisrael" is contained in a statement made by Rebbi Yochanan in the name of
Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai - who quoted Hashem as saying that even if the only
merit of K'lal Yisrael is the recitation of the Sh'ma morning and evening,
that will suffice to stop them from defeat at the hand of their enemies.
(a) The Mashu'ach Milchamah spoke twice to the soldiers, once on the border
(before the battle commenced), and once on the battlefield. He announced ...
1. ... on the border - that those who are expected to return from the
battle-front (i.e. someone who had built a house and not consecrated it, who
had planted a vineyard and not yet brought Neta Revai (to Yerushalayim in
the fourth year), who had betrothed a woman and not married her, or someone
who was afraid of war).
(b) The four expressions that we quoted in our Mishnah corresponded to the
four things that the enemy used to do. The meaning of ...
2. ... on the battlefield - that one should not be afraid or broken-hearted
... when the enemy employs its scare-tactics.
1. ... 'Magifin' is - clashing their shields.
(c) The clanging of the enemies swords and pounding of their nailed boots
are not counted - because these were performed in the course of war and not
as scare tactics.
2. ... 'Meri'in' is - blowing their trumpets.
3. ... 'Tzevachin' is - war cries.
4. 'Romsin' is - when the enemy make their horses prance around, causing
them to stamp their hoofs and neigh.
(a) When Goli'as declared "B'ru Lachem *Ish* ve'Yered Elai" - he was
referring to Hashem (the Ish Milchamah), as if he was issuing Him a
(b) That explains his name, says Rebbi Yochanan - which is a derivative of
'Giluy Panim' (meaning Chutzpah, because he had the temerity to challenge
(c) That explains why Hashem sent His champion "ve'David ben *Ish* Efrati".
(a) Goli'as inadvertently hinted at his own downfall, says Rebbi Yochanan in
the name of Rebbi Meir, when he said ...
1. ... "B'ru Lachem Ish ve'Yered Elai" - (rather than "va'Yilachem Iti"),
implying that David would come down on him and defeat him (see also Agados
(b) It is true that David too, began his response with "Atah Ba Elai
be'Cherev u've'Chanis u've'Chidon" - but he continued 'va'Anochi Ba Eilecha
be'Shem Hashem Tzeva'kos ... " (stressing the contrast, but in no way
intimating his own defeat).
2. ... "Im Yuchal Lehilachem Iti ve'Hikani" - because this implies that
whoever accepts the challenge will defeat him (despite the fact that he
continued "ve'Im Ani Uchal Lo ve'Hikisiv").
3. ... "ha'Kelev Anochi Ki Atah Ba Elai be'Maklos" - because it is not the
way of a national hero to make such an uncalled-for comparison, and it
suggests that he would end up like a dog that has been beaten with a stick.
(c) The significance of the Pasuk "va'Yigash ha'Pelishti *Hashkem
ve'Ha'arev*" - is the fact that Goli'as tried to disturb Yisrael from
reciting the Sh'ma each morning and evening, says Rebbi Yochanan.
(d) He also explains that Goli'as was given the merit to make his stand for
forty days - because of the forty days delay before the Torah was given
(from the sixth of Sivan until Shiv'ah-Asar be'Tamuz. See also Agados
(a) According to Rav, the Pasuk refers to Goli'as as "Ish ha'Beinayim",
because he was 'Mevuneh mi'Kol Mum' (perfectly built, free of blemish).
According to Shmuel - it was because, one of four brothers, he was neither
the tallest, nor the smallest, but in between.
(b) In the Beis-ha'Medrash of Rebbi Shilo, they ascribed it to the fact that
he was shaped like a building. Rebbi Yochanan explains 'Bar Me'ah Papi
ve'Chada Na'ani' - meaning that he came *from between* many fathers, because
many men were intimate with Orpah (the night after she left Naomi, as Chazal
(c) And his name was Goli'as because he hailed from Gas. The Beraisa, quoted
by Rav Yosef however, explains 'Gas' metaphorically - to mean that many men
threshed her like a wine-press.
(d) His mother is sometimes called Orpah and sometimes, Harafah. Rav and
Shmuel argue over this. One of them says that her real name was Harafah, and
that she was sometimes called Orpah because she made herself Hefker for men
to have relations with her unnaturally (face to back of neck [from the word
'Oref', meaning the back of a neck]). The other one says - that her real
name was Orpah, and that she was sometimes called Harafah because the men
threshed her like beaten wheat (Harifos, as we find in Shmuel and in
(a) Saf, Madon, Goli'as and Yishbi be'Nov - were all sons of Orpah, says Rav
(b) They were all killed - by David or his servants, he adds.
(c) The Pasuk writes "va'Tishak Orpah la'Chamosah, ve'Rus Davkah Bah" - to
which Hashem responded 'Let the sons of the kissed one come and fall into
hands of the sons of the one who cleaved'.
(d) Orpah cried twice when departing from Na'omi (shedding a total of four
tears, one tear from each eye on each occasion) - that is why, says Rava,
she merited having four mighty sons.
(a) Once, describing Goli'as spear, the Navi refers to it as "Eitz
Chaniso", and once, as "Cheitz Chaniso". "Cheitz" a derivative of 'Chatzi' -
hints that the Pasuk had not even described half of Goli'as strength.
(b) The Pasuk took the trouble to describe his strength, at least in part -
to teach us David ha'Melech's bravery, that despite his might, he took him
on, in defense of Hashem's honor and that of Yisrael.
(c) The hero of Amon is once referred to as Shovach, and once, as Shofach.
Rav and Shmuel argue over this. According to one of them, his real name was
Shofach, and he was called Shovach because he was shaped like a dove-cot.
According to the other one - his real name was Shovach, and the Pasuk
sometimes calls him Shofach because whoever saw him, sullied himself out of
(a) Regarding the soldiers of Nevuchadnetzar, the Pasuk writes in Yirmiyah
"Ashpaso ke'Kever Pasu'ach Kulam Giborim". Rav or Shmuel (some say Rebbi Ami
or Rebbi Asi) argue over this. One of them explains that when one of the
soldiers would shoot an arrow, it would leave piles of corpses. According to
the other one - the Pasuk is referring to their capacity in the sphere of
eating. They were able to eat so much he says, that they would leave piles
of body waste.
(b) We know that this was not due to illness - because the Pasuk writes
(c) We can extrapolate from the fact that we need to answer this - that
under normal circumstances, excessive body waste is considered an illness.
The ramifications of this statement are - that a person who does experience
excessive body-waste, should Daven for a speedy recovery.
(a) Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi argue over the Pasuk in Mishlei "Da'agah be'Lev
Ish Yasichenah". One of them explains that he should remove what is
troubling him from his heart ('Yasichenah mi'Libo'). According to the second
opinion, ('Yasichenah la'Acheirim') he should speak it out to others.
(b) When the Mashu'ach Milchamah told the soldiers that they were unique,
because Hashem their G-d went with them into battle - he was referring to
the four-letter Hashem as well as His substitute Names, were placed in the