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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sotah 5



(a) Rava Amar Ze'iri cites the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Shim'u ve'Ha'azinu Al Tegavhu Leiv" as the warning for conceit. According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, it is a combination of two Pesukim in the Chumash; one of them is "ve'Ram Levavecha ve'Shachachta" - the other, is "Hishamer Lecha Pen Tishkach es Hashem".

(b) The principle of Rebbi Avin Amar Ila'a that governs this warning is - 'Kol Makom she'Ne'emar Hishamer, Pen ve'Al Eino Ela be'Lo Sa'aseh'.

(c) Rav Avira cites a Pasuk in Iyov, sometimes in the name of Rav Ami, sometimes in the name of Rav Asi (on the previous Amud he quoted Rebbi Ami or Rebbi Asi. Presumably one of them is a printer's error). He learns from ...

1. ... "Rumu Me'at" - that someone who is conceited will be made small.
2. ... "ve'Einenu" - that he will die.
3. ... "ve'Humchu ke'*Chol* Yechpatzun" - that if he repents (makes himself lowly), he will live his full life (like Avraham, Yitzchak and Ya'akov by whom the Torah writes "Kol". Though this is difficult according to Chazal, who state that Avraham died five years prematurely to avoid seeing Eisav sinning).
(a) We learn from the conclusion of the previous Pasuk: "u'che'Rosh Shibo'les Yimalu" - that should he fail to repent, he will be cut-off like the top of the corn.

(b) Rav Huna and Rav Chisda argue over whether ...

1. ... this refers literally to the top of the corn or to the entire corn. Rav Asi explains the expression "Rosh ha'Shibo'les", according to the latter opinion - with an analogy. He compares it to the owner of a cornfield who, upon entering his field and seeing some stalks of corn that have grown taller than the others, picks them.
2. ... the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'es Daka u'Shefal Ru'ach" means that Hashem raises the humble person to be with Him, or that he lowers Himself to be with the humble person. We prove the latter opinion to be the correct one - from the fact that Hashem descended to rest His Shechinah on Har Sinai rather than to raise Har Sinai up to him.
(c) Rav Yosef advises us to learn from Hashem - (who descended upon Har Sinai) to be humble.
(a) Rebbi Elazar learns from ...
1. ... the two Pesukim "ve'Ramei ha'Komah" (Yeshayah) and "ve'Ashereihem Tegadei'un" (Va'eschanan) - that a conceited person deserves to be cut down like an Asheirah (a tree that is worshipped).
2. ... the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Hakitzu ve'Ranenu Shecheinei Afar" - that only people who 'dwell with the dust' (with those who are less significant than themselves) will arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim, but not people who are conceited.
(b) And, based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "(Ki Ram Hashem ve'Shafal Yir'eh) ve'Gavo'ah mi'Merchak Yeyeida", he says that when the Shechinah comes across a conceited person - it wails.

(c) The distinction that Rav Avira (or Rebbi Elazar) draws between a tall man and Hashem is - that, whereas a tall man does not see a small one, Hashem 'knows' those who are small (meaning that a great person tends to ignore those who are in a lower bracket than themselves, but Hashem brings close those who are lowly).

(d) Rav Chisda (or Mar Ukva) quotes Hashem as saying - that He cannot live together in the world with a conceited person (as Chazal have said 'When someone is conceited he pushes away the legs of the Shechinah').

(a) Others associate the Pasuk "Meloshni ba'Seiser Re'eihu, Oso Atzmis, Gevah Einayim u'Rechav Leivav" (which Rav Chisda or Mar Ukva just derived their previous statement) - in connection with the sin of Lashon ha'Ra.

(b) Rebbi Alexandri Darshens from the Pasuk "ve'ha'Resha'im ka'Yam Nigrash" - that if the wind can drain the sea (which contains numerous Revi'i'os of water) of its residue, then it (in the form of even the slightest punishment) can certainly drain a conceited person (since the previous Pesukim are speaking about humble people), who only contains one Revi'is of blood.

(c) Although a person contains many Revi'i'os of blood - he can survive with only one.

1. Rav Chiya bar Ashi Amar Rav says - that a Talmid-Chacham needs to possess one sixty-fourth of pride.
2. Rav Huna B'rei de'Rav Yehoshua adds - that it even enhances his stature like 'a Sa'sa de'Shibalta' (the tall wheat-stalks that surround the ordinary stalks).
(b) Rava says that a Talmid-Chacham who possesses pride - in large measures is in Shamta (Cherem), and one who does not - possess it at all is in Shamta too, because without any pride at all, people will not listen to him.

(c) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak maintains that one is better of without any pride at all - because Shlomoh Hamelech describes someone who possesses it as abominable.

(a) Chizkiyah advises someone who wants his prayers to be answered - to be soft-hearted like flesh (and not hard like stone).


1. From the fact that the Torah writes in Tazri'a "*u'Basar* ki Yih'yeh Bo be'Oro Shechin ve'Nirpa" (rather than "*ve'Adam* Ki Yih'yeh ... ") - Rebbi Zeira extrapolates like Chizkiyah just said.
2. Rebbi Yochanan gives the acronym of "Adam" - as 'Eifer, Dam, Marah (the liquid from the gall of the liver), demonstrating how empty a human-being is.
(c) Some give the acronym of "Basar" as 'Bushah, Seruchah ve'Rimah'. Others take out 'Seruchah' because it begins with a 'Samech' and not with a 'Shin' - replacing it with 'She'ol' (the grave, which is where man belongs).
(a) Rav Ashi Darshens from the Pasuk "ve'la'Se'eis ve'la'Sapachas" - that someone who makes himself big will eventually be diminished.

(b) We prove from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "ve'al Kol he'Harim ha'Ramim ve'al Kol ha'Gevahos ha'Nisa'os" - that "Se'eis" (like "Nisa'os") means tall or uplifted.
2. ... "Safcheini Na el Achas ha'Kehunos Le'echol Pas-Lechem" (regarding the house of Eli ha'Kohen) - that "Sapachas" (like "Safcheini") means secondary.



(a) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi extrapolates from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Zivchei Elokim Ru'ach Nishbarah" - that someone who is lowly of spirit is considered as if he had brought, not just one Korban, but all the Korbanos.
2. ... "Leiv Nishbar ve'Nidkeh Elokim Lo Sivzeh" - that his prayers will not be rejected.
(b) And he learns from the Pasuk there "ve'Sam Derech Ar'enu be'Yesha Elokim" - that anyone who takes stock of his ways in this world (to reckon the loss of a Mitzvah against the reward, and the reward of a sin against the loss) will experience the salvation of Hashem.

(c) He reconciles the fact that the Pasuk writes "ve'Sam" and not "ve'Sham" - by making use of the principle 'Al Tikrei ("ve'Sam") Ela ("ve'Sham").

(a) The Tana of our Mishnah describing Kinuy, writes 'Amar Lah Al Tedabri im Ish P'loni Zeh'. The corollary between the Reisha ('Keitzad Mekane Lah') and the Reisha de'Seifa ('Amar Lah Bifnei Shenayim') is - that the latter explains the former.

(b) The problem with this from the Seifa de'Seifa of the Mishnah (Dibrah Imo, Adayin Muteres le'Beiso ... ') is - that according to the Reisha de'Seifa it seems that merely speaking to the man involved is considered S'tirah, whereas, according to the Seifa de'Seifa, which permits her to her husband and to eat Terumah until such time as they enter a secluded place together, it is clear that speaking alone is not called 'S'tirah'.

(c) In light of the Seifa de'Seifa, Abaye explains that the Reisha de'Seifa is not the explanation of the Reisha, but one of a series of cases that are not considered S'tirah, as we shall now see.

(d) The cases that ...

1. ... are not considered Kinuy - are a warning not to speak with the man in question and she either spoke or even entered a secluded area with him, or if he warned her not to enter a secluded area and she spoke with him in an area that was not secluded.
2. ... are considered Kinuy - only if he warned her not to enter a secluded area together with the man, and she did.
(a) The Tana concludes the Mishnah 've'Im Meis Choletzes'. Rav Yosef learns from the Pasuk "ve'Yatz'ah mi'Beiso, ve'Haysah le'Ish *Acher*" - that the Sotah may marry another man, but not the Yavam (who is not called 'Acher' vis-a-vis her deceased husband).

(b) He knows that the Pasuk is referring to a Sotah - because the Pasuk previously said "Ki Matza Bah Ervas Davar".

(c) She requires Chalitzah on the other hand - in the same way as she would have required a Get from her husband had he not died.

(a) According to the second Lashon, Rav Yosef explains that she should not require Yibum - because seeing as the Torah ordered the Sotah to leave her husband (to relieve him from having to live with an immoral woman), how can it then force the Yavam to take her into his house?

(b) The Torah does however, permit her to marry somebody else - on the grounds that he does so of his own choice. No-one asks him to do so.

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