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Sotah 45

1) [line 6] BA'ALIL - clearly (for everyone to see)
2) [line 17] METZA'AN - if he (the Zaken Mamrei) found them (the members of the Beis Din ha'Gadol)

3) [line 17] ZAKEN MAMREI
(a) A Zaken Mamrei is a Torah Sage who argues against and defies the ruling of the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges of the Lishkas ha'Gazis in Yerushalayim, with regard to a practical Halachic decision. The Torah states, veha'Ish Asher Ya'aseh v'Zadon l'Vilti Shemo'a El ha'Kohen...O El ha'Shofet, u'Mes ha'Ish ha'Hu..." - "And the man who will act presumptuously, and will not listen to the Kohen...or to the judge, that man shall die..." (Devarim 17:12).
(b) Chazal received the tradition that a Sage does not become a Zaken Mamrei unless the following conditions are met:

1. He is one of the outstanding Torah Sages of his time, authorized to judge and to teach Halachic matters;
2. He was involved in a dispute with other Sages in a Halachic matter, and they brought the case to the Great Sanhedrin for judgment;
3. The Sanhedrin ruled against him, but he nevertheless returned to his city and obstinately continued to rule according to his own opinion.
(c) If these three conditions are fulfilled after having received the proper warnings, he is termed a Zaken Mamrei and is put to death by Chenek (choking). His sentence is carried out in Yerushalayim when Benei Yisrael come there for Aliyah la'Regel, on the next holiday, to fulfil the verse, "v'Chol Yisrael Yishme'u v'Yira'u, v'Lo Yezidun Od." - "And all the people of Yisrael shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously [inspired acts]." (ibid. 17:13)

4) [line 17] A'BEI PAGI - near Beis Pagi, an area located at the city limits of Yerushalayim (a) inside the outermost wall of Yerushalayim (RASHI); or (b) outside of the outermost wall of Yerushalayim (BARTENURA to Menachos 11:2)

5) [line 21] GAVA'I - inside the Lishkas ha'Gazis
6) [line 23] "SHARERECH AGAN HA'SAHAR; AL YECHSAR HA'MAZEG..." - "Your navel is like a round goblet, that never lacks blended wine..." (Shir ha'Shirim 7:3)

7) [line 30] EIN MOSIFIN AL HA'IR V'AL HA'AZAROS - the boundaries of Yerushalayim and the courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash are only extended

If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19). Also, one may not backtrack to harvest a row previously overlooked.

9) [line 38] CHALAL - a corpse [who has been killed with a sword or a similar metal object]

10) [line 38] HEICHAH D'MISHTAKE'ACH - where it is found
11) [line 41] KAMAH - standing stalks of grain
12) [line 42] TZAFU OMRIN L'SOCH SEDEI CHAVEIRO - if someone's sheaves were blown into his friend's field

13) [line 44] AVIR SADEH - the airspace over one's field
14) [line 48] OMER - a sheaf
15) [line 51] MAI IRYA - why is this talking about...

16) [line 53] HAREINI K'VEN AZAI B'SHUKEI TEVERYA - (a) I can keenly answer any question put to me, just like Ben Azai who taught Torah in the marketplaces of Teveryah. Ben Azai had a power of reasoning greater than all other sages of his day (RASHI); (b) I can answer any question put to me, just like Ben Azai did in the marketplaces of Teveryah (RABEINU GERSHOM to Erchin 30b, RASHI to Kidushin 20a)


17) [line 6] SAVRUHA - the students of the Yeshiva thought (were of the opinion)
18) [line 13] AFAR - [loose] dirt [dug up for this purpose]
19) [line 13] TZEROR - a pebble
20) [line 16] CHANUK - choked
21) [line 16] MEFARPER - moving convulsively, just before death
22) [line 17] GAL - a heap of stones
23) [line 21] MUTAL B'ASHPAH - laying in a heap [of garbage]
24) [line 26] "KI YIMATZEI" - "when there will be found" (Devarim 21:1)
25) [line 26] PERAT L'MATZUY - to the exclusion of [one who is killed in a place where murder is] common

26) [line 31] MECHUVAN - exactly in the middle
27) [line 34] TIBURO - his navel
28) [line 34] CHOTMO - his nose
29) [line 35] EFSHAR L'TZAMTZEM - it is possible for natural (i.e., not intentionally planned) events to occur simultaneously, i.e. it is possible that the corpse is laying at exactly the same distance from the two closest cities.

(a) Even though the border between the tribes of Yehudah and Binyamin ran through the city of Yerushalayim, the city itself was not divided among the tribes, but rather it collectively belongs to all of them.
(b) The verse regarding Eglah Arufah states, "Ki Yimatzei Chalal ba'Adamah Asher HaSh-m Elokecha Nosen Lecha l'Rishtah..." - "If one is found slain in the land which HaSh-m your Elokim gives you to possess..." (Devarim 21:1), which excludes Yerushalayim, which was not the *possession* of any one tribe.

(a) When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes Mitzvah. The person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8)
(b) The body must be buried where it is found; Mes Mitzvah Koneh Mekomo i.e. it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field, it is buried there. However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery. (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7)

32) [line 40] B'DUCHTEI - in its place
33) [line 40] D'NADI - that moved
34) [line 41] D'RAHIT AZIL - that was running and [continued] going
35) [line 41] B'APEI - in his nose
36) [line 42] "MI'ME'EI IMI ATAH GOZI" - "from the innards of my mother, You drew me out" (Tehilim 71:6) - The Gemara interprets this verse to mean, "in the innards of my mother, You [formed me] from the head [down]" (RASHI).

37) [line 43] "GOZI NIZRECH V'HASHLICHI..." - "Pull out your hair and cast it away..." (Yirmeyahu 7:29) - The Gemara interprets the word "Gozi" as referring to [pulling out hairs of] the head (RASHI).

38) [line 43] U'MESHALE'ACH SHARASHAV EILACH V'EILACH - (lit. and it sends out its roots in all directions) and the embryo develops by expanding in all directions from the navel

39) [line 44] MI'METZI'ASEI MIT'TZAR - is formed from its center
40) [line 46] NIFTERU - they took leave
41) [line 47] LO MASHCHAH V'OL - that has not pulled [any load] in the yoke

42) [line 47] MUM - a blemish
(a) There are three types of blemishes (Bechoros 43a): 1. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen from doing the Avodah or invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach; 2. blemishes that only invalidate a Kohen but not an animal; 3. blemishes that invalidate a Kohen and also an animal but only because of Mar'is ha'Ayin (for appearance sake).
(b) The blemishes that invalidate an animal from being offered as a sacrifice do not invalidate a female calf from being used as an Eglah Arufah. The following is a list of the Mumim of animals (Vayikra 22:22-24), based partially on Rav Aryeh Kaplan's "The Living Torah." Although there is a dispute as to the precise meaning of the names of the Mumim, all of the blemishes are known through tradition (RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnah to Bechoros 7:2).

  1. AVERES - blind (even in one eye)
  2. SHAVUR - broken-limbed
  3. CHARUTZ - gashed; this includes a perforated or split eyelid, nose or lip, or a gash anyplace where there is a bone
  4. YABELES - warts
  5. GARAV - mange, the animal equivalent of eczema
  6. YALEFES - ringworm
  7. SARU'A - an extra limb or an overgrown limb
  8. KALUT - a missing limb or un-split hooves
  9. MA'UCH - testicles crushed by hand
  10. KATUS - testicles crushed by an implement
  11. NATUK - testicles that are pulled loose
  12. KARUS - severed testicles
43) [line 48] NACHAL EISAN - (a) a swiftly flowing stream (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2); (b) a valley with tough soil (RASHI to Devarim 21:4)

44) [line 48] KOFITZ - a cleaver
45) [line 49] LI'SROK SHAM PISHTAN - to comb out bundles of flax
46) [line 49] UL'NAKER SHAM AVANIM - to chisel holes into stones (e.g. to use as millstones) using a sharp instrument

47) [line 50] "YADEINU LO SHAFCHU ES HA'DAM HA'ZEH V'EINEINU LO RA'U." - "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]." (Devarim 21:7)

48) [last line] PETARNUHU - we let him go
49) [last line] LEVAYAH - an escort

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