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Sotah 44

SOTAH 44 - dedicated by Marcia and Lee Weinblatt to Jeri and Eli Turkel, with Mazal Tov wishes for Tamar's marriage to Netanel Casado.

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1) [line 1] TANA TUNA - the Tana of our Mishnayos also taught (in Ohalos 15:8)
2) [line 2] V'HU SHE'YEHU BAH ARBA AMOS - as long as it is four Amos [square. But less than that is Tamei because it is considered subordinate to the burial caves that surround it -- RASHI]

3) [line 6] KELAPEI LAYA?! - Towards which direction is it turning? (the opposite would be reasonable!)

4) [line 7] MIDRID V'NAFIK - he goes down [from the Chatzer ha'Kever through its side entrance] and goes out

5) [line 8] MA'AHIL (TUM'AS OHEL)
(a) A k'Zayis of the flesh of a *Mes* (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height). If a person becomes Tamei by touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah -- see Background to Sotah16:14) sprinkled on him.
(b) In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Keilim 1:4)
(c) The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova Ha'kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the *build* (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the *number* (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(d) When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is *Mevi* Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is *Chotzetz* from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).
(e) However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, are not Ohalim and are not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if they are one Tefach wide.

6) [line 10] MESAIMA MECHITZASA - its boundaries (walls) are delineated

7a) [line 23] MAH TA'AM "LO YIKACH?" - For what reason does the Torah state, "[Almanah u'Gerushah va'Chalalah Zonah, Es Eleh] Lo Yikach..." - "[A widow, a divorcee, a Chalalah and a prostitute, these women] he shall not marry..." (Vayikra 21:14)?
b) [line 24] MISHUM "LO YECHALEL." - in order that "Lo Yechalel Zar'o b'Amav..." - "He shall not invalidate his seed among his people...") (Vayikra 21:15).

8) [line 28] "HACHEN BA'CHUTZ MELACHTECHA, V'ATDAH BA'SADEH LACH; ACHAR, U'VANISA VEISECHA" - "Prepare your work outside, and make it fit for yourself in the field; and afterwards build your house." (Mishlei 24:27) - The Gemara goes on to interpret this verse homilletically

9) [line 41] DIMUS - a row of stones in a wall (added either to the height or the thickness -- RASHI)

10) [line 41] SHAVU'A - a seven-year Shemitah cycle
11) [line 47] MA'AVIR - it (the army) shall not charge him with anything
12) [line 50] KISHREI HA'MILCHAMAH - the joined ranks in battle
13) [line 50] CHEREV SHELUFAH - a drawn sword
14) [line 51] SHE'YACHZOR BI'GELALAN - he will return home on account of them [so that people will think that he is going back because of his betrothed wife or unconsecrated house and they will not know that he sinned]

15) [line 53] UV'AKEIVO SHEL AM - and behind the soldiers [captains are also appointed]
16) [line 53] ZAKIFIN - officers appointed to make the soldiers stand up and fight
17) [last line] KASHILIN SHEL BARZEL - iron axes
18) [last line] L'KAPE'ACH ES SHOKAV - to beat him [until he returns to the battle]


19) [line 1] NISAH - fleeing [from the battle]
20) [line 11] SACH BEIN TEFILAH L'TEFILAH - one who spoke in between putting on the Tefilin Shel Yad and Tefilin Shel Rosh

21) [line 15] HIRTI'A - he became startled, terrified
22) [line 16] MAYIM SHOSESIN LO AL BIRKAV - urine [begins flowing and] drips on his knees

23) [line 27] LI'REVACHAH - for purposes of expansion

The Gemara (Sukah 25a) brings the verse "b'Shivtecha b'Veisecha" (Devarim 6:7) to prove that one is not required to do a Mitzvah while he is occupied with another Mitzvah. See Insights to Berachos 11a for further elaboration on this concept.


25) [line 32] ELGAH ARUFAH
(a) If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Israel) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:
(b) Five elders of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c) The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe.
(d) The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]." (Devarim 21:7) This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).

26) [line 34] BEIS DIN HA'GADOL SHEB'YRUSHALAYIM - the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court), known as the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges. The Lishkas ha'Gazis (The Chamber of Hewn Stone, TY #27) was partially built in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Great Sanhedrin was the highest Halachic authority before which the most difficult cases were brought (Devarim 17:8).

27) [line 36] EIN BEIS DIN SHAKUL - a Beis Din can not be balanced, i.e. a Beis Din can not have an even number of judges which might lead to a balanced vote and no verdict

28) [line 37] TAMUN B'GAL - hidden in a pile of stones
29) [line 38] TZAF - floating
30) [line 40] SAMUCH LA'SEFAR - near the border
31) [line 48] SANHEDREI KETANAH - a Beis Din of 23 judges, who have the athority to judge capital cases

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