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Sotah 37

SOTAH 37 (3 Shevat) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas: R' Zvi ben R' Zev zt'l -- HaRav Hirschel Milner, who passed away on 3 Shevat 5755 (January 4, 1995), by his granddaughter, Chani (Pogrow) Shaw and family.

1) [line 2] "SHAM BINYAMIN TZA'IR RODEM, SAREI YEHUDAH RIGMASAM; SAREI ZEVULUN, SAREI NAFTALI." - "There, Binyamin, the youngest, rules over them, the princes of Yehudah stoned them; the princes of Zevulun, the princes of Naftali." (Tehilim 68:28)

2) [line 5] USHPIZCHAN LA'GEVURAH - a host for the Almighty
3) [line 6] "[...CHOFEF ALAV KOL HA'YOM,] U'VEIN KESEIFAV SHACHEN." - "[...He hovers over him all day long,] and dwells between his shoulders." (Devarim 33:12)

4) [line 10] "SEVAVUNI V'CHACHASH EFRAYIM, UV'MIRMAH BEIS YISRAEL; V'YHUDAH OD RAD IM KEL, V'IM KEDOSHIM NE'EMAN." - "Efrayim surrounded me with lies, and the house of Yisrael with deceit; but Yehudah still rules with HaSh-m, and is faithful (a) along with the holy ones (MALBIM); (b) to the Holy One (RADAK, METZUDAS DAVID)." (Hoshea 12:10)

5) [line 12] "HOSHI'ENI ELOKIM; KI VA'U MAYIM AD NAFESH. TAVATI B'YVEIN METZULAH V'EIM MA'AMAD; BASI V'MA'AMAKI MAYIM, V'SHIBOLES SHETAFASNI." - "Save me Elokim; for the waters have reached until the soul. I have sunk in deep mire and there is no foothold; I have entered deepest waters, and a rushing current sweeps me away." (Tehilim 69:2-3)
[line 14] "AL TISHTEFENI SHIBOLES MAYIM, V'AL TIVLA'ENI METZULAH; V'AL TE'TAR ALAI BE'ER PIHA." - "Let no swift current sweep me away, nor let the shadowy depths swallow me; and do not let the pit close its mouth over me." (Tehilim 69:16)

6) [line 18] "...DABER EL BENEI YISRAEL V'YISA'U!" - "[And HaSh-m said to Moshe, 'Why do you cry to me?] Speak to the people of Yisrael, that they go forward!'" (Shemos 14:15)

7) [line 29] HA'RA'UY L'SHARES - a Levi who is fit to carry the Aron Kodesh, that is, between the ages of thirty and fifty

8) [line 32] MAI "AL?" - What is the meaning of the word "Al" in the verses, "Eleh Ya'amdu l'Varech Es ha'Am *Al* Har Gerizim...v'Eleh Ya'amdu *Al* ha'Kelelah b'Har Eival." (Devarim 27:12-13)

9a) [line 33] "V'NASATA AL HA'MA'ARECHES LEVONAH ZAKAH..." - "And you shall place next to the stack, pure frankincense..." (Vayikra 24:7) b) [line 33] HA'MA'ARECHES (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed. (Vayikra 24:5-9).
(b) Kanin (wooden racks) separate the loaves to allow air to circulate so that the bread will not spoil.
(c) A Kometz (the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). Only the Levonah is offered on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.

10) [line 35] "V'SAKOSA AL HA'ARON ES HA'PAROCHES" - "and you shall cover the Ark with the curtain" (Shemos 40:3) - This verse proves that "Al" means "next to" since the Paroches was a dividing curtain between the Kodesh and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (the location of the Aron); it did not actually cover the Aron.

11a) [line 37] BARUCH BI'CHELAL - the general, all-inclusive blessing, i.e. the verse in Devarim (27:26) recited in the form of a blessing ("Blessed is the one who will uphold the words of this Torah, to perform them.")
b) [line 38] BARUCH BI'FERAT - the particular blessings of the ceremony, i.e. the verses in Devarim (27:15-25) recited in the form of a blessing, as in the previous entry

12) [last line] LILMOD UL'LAMED LISHMOR VELA'ASOS - (lit. to learn and to teach, to keep and to do) we are commanded to accept all of the Mitzvos with these four conditions, as delineated in the verses Devarim 5:1 (u'Lemadtem, u'Shemartem, La'asosam) and ibid. 11:19 (v'Limadtem)


13) [line 2] V'CHEN B'SINAI V'CHEN B'ARVOS MOAV - and similarly at Mount Sinai and similarly in the Plains of Mo'av, Benei Yisrael accepted the Torah and Mitzvos in the same fashion

14) [line 3] "ELEH DIVREI HA'BRIS ASHER TZIVAH HASH-M ES MOSHE [LICHROS ES BENEI YISRAEL B'ERETZ MO'AV; MILVAD HA'BRIS ASHER KARAS ITAM B'CHOREV.]" - "These are the words of the covenant that HaSh-m commanded Moshe [to make with Benei Yisrael in the land of Moav; besides the covenant that He made with them in Chorev.]" (Devarim 28:69)

15) [line 4] "U'SHMARTEM ES DIVREI HA'BRIS HA'ZOS, [VA'ASISEM OSAM; L'MA'AN TASKILU ES KOL ASHER TA'ASUN.]" - "You shall observe the words of this covenant [and do them; in order that you shall prosper in all that you do.]" (Devarim 29:8)

16a) [line 8] KELALOS - the general commandments of the Mitzvos
b) [line 9] PERATOS - the particular details of the Mitzvos

17) [line 26] ARAVA V'ARAVA D'ARAVA - a guarantor and a guarantor of the guarantor, that is, Benei Yisrael accepted upon themselves to make sure that their fellow Jews keep all of the Mitzvos. Whether they accepted upon themselves to make sure that their fellow Jew is doing his part in watching to make sure that they themselves do the Mitzvos is the point of contention between Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah and Rebbi.

18) [line 27] METURGEMANEI - his Meturgeman, (a) the person who repeats in a loud voice the words of the Rav, who lectures in a low voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) the person who *translates into Aramaic* the words of the Rav, who delivers the Shi'ur in a low voice *in Hebrew* (RASHI to Yoma 20b)

19) [line 50] BIRKAS KOHANIM
The Kohanim are required to bless the people with the three-fold blessing, as described in Bamidbar 6:22-27. In the Beis ha'Mikdash the blessing was said with the Shem ha'Mefurash (the Tetragrammaton -- Sotah 38a). According to Tosfos DH Harei Hu Omer (ibid.), this is only true when there is Giluy Shechinah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since there was no Giluy Shechinah after the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim stopping saying Birkas Kohanim with the Shem ha'Mefurash.

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