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Sotah 35

SOTAH 31-35 - These Dafim have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fauer in honor of the first Yahrzeit (18 Teves 5761) of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.

1) [line 1] "VA'YELCHU VA'YAVO'U EL MOSHE V'EL AHARON V'EL ADAS BENEI YISRAEL EL MIDBAR PARAN KASDESHA..." - "And they went, and they came to Moshe and Aharon and to the all the congregation of the children of Yisrael unto the wilderness of Paran to Kadesh; [and brought back word to them, and to all the congregation, and showed them the fruit of the land.]" (Bamidbar 13:26)

2) [line 3] "VA'YESAPRU LO VA'YOMRU, BANU EL HA'ARETZ ASHER SHELACHTANU; V'GAM ZAVAS CHALAV U'DVASH HI, V'ZEH PIRYAH." - "And they told him and said: 'We came to the land to which you sent us; and it also it a land that flows with milk and honey, and this is its fruit.'" (Bamidbar 13:27)

3) [line 4] "EFES KI AZ HA'AM [HA'YOSHEV BA'ARETZ; VEHE'ARIM BETZUROS GEDOLOS ME'OD, V'GAM YELIDEI HA'ANAK RA'INU SHAM.]" - "Albeit the people [who dwell in the land] are fierce; [and the cities are fortified [and] very great, and moreover we saw there the children of a giant." (Bamidbar 13:28)

4) [line 5] (SIMAN EMES (LEVADO) [LACHDO] LEVAYAH) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the three times in Maseches Sotah that Rebbi Yochanan cites a teaching of Rebbi Meir, respectively:
1. *Emes* refers to Kol Lashon ha'Ra she'Ein Bo Devar *Emes* (our Sugya);
2. (*Levado*) [*Lachdo*] refers to b'Sheloshah Mekomos *Lachdo* Piv (Daf 42b, line 11);
3. *Levayah* refers to Kol she'Einu *Melaveh* u'Mislaveh (Daf 46b, line 43) (RAV YITZCHAK ISAAC CHAVER, RASHASH, MAR'EH KOHEN, CHESHEK SHLOMO). The *fourth* time that Rebbi Yochanan cites a teaching of Rebbi Meir, va'Teshev b'Eisan Kashto - she'Shavah Kashto l'Eisano (Daf 36b, line 37), the citation should read *Rebbi* and not *Rebbi Meir* (RASHASH). Alternatively, the Siman should read Siman Emes *Shavah* Lachdo Levayah (CHESHEK SHLOMO)

5) [line 7] "VA'YAHAS KALEV ES HA'AM EL MOSHE; VA'YOMER, 'ALOH NA'ALEH V'YARASHNU OSAH, KI YACHOL NUCHAL LAH!'" - "And Kalev silenced the people before Moshe and said, 'We should surely go up and possess it, for we will be able to overcome it!'" (Bamidbar 13:30)

6) [line 8] HESITAN BI'DEVARIM - he [quieted them down because he pretended to be on their side, and] instigated them with his words

7) [line 9] MISHTA'I - speaking
8) [line 9] DEIN ROSH KETI'AH YEMALEL? - (a) This one, whose head is cut off (i.e. who has no progeny), will speak? (RASHI); (b) This one, who has a small, cut off [letter (the letter Yud)] at the beginning [of his name], will speak? (ARUCH) (Since Moshe Rabeinu prayed for Yehoshua and added the letter Yud to his name, the spies knew that he would not corroborate their story.)

9a) [line 10] AMAR, IY MISHTA'EINA - he (Kalev) said, "If I speak [the truth]
b) [line 10] AMRI BI MILSA - they will say something about me
c) [line 11] V'CHASMIN LI - and they will silence me."

10) [line 16] "VEHA'ANASHIM ASHER ALU IMO AMRU,'LO NUCHAL LA'ALOS EL HA'AM; KI CHAZAK HU MIMEHU!'" - "But the men who went up with him said 'We are not able to fight (lit. go up) against the people; for they are stronger than we [are]!'" (Bamidbar 13:31) - The word "Mimenu" can also be translated as, "than Him!"

11) [line 23] KOL HEICHA D'MATU - wherever they came
12) [line 24] D'NITREDU - that they should be troubled
13) [line 25] NACH NAFSHEI - passed away
14) [line 27] "...VA'NEHI V'EINEINU KA'CHAGAVIM, V'CHEN HAYINU B'EINEIHEM." - "[And there we saw the Nefilim, the sons of a giant, from the Nefilim (who were giants);] and we [ourselves] felt like grasshoppers, and that is how [they looked at us.]" (Bamidbar 13:33)

15) [line 30] LECHAYEI - it is good! (the spies could have honestly said that)
16) [line 31] KI HAVU MAVREI AVELEI - when they provided the Se'udas Havarah for the mourners. On the day of death of a close relative, others provide the mourners with refreshments or a meal outside, on their way home from the funeral.

17) [line 32] TUSEI ARZEI - beneath cedar trees (because of their great size)
18) [line 33] KACHAZINAN INSHEI D'DAMU L'KAMTZEI B'ILANEI - we saw people in the trees who look like grasshoppers

19) [line 40] MESU MISAH MESHUNAH - they died an unusual death (since in the verse that describes their punishment (Bamidbar 14:37) the word "Ra'ah," "bad," is next to the word "ba'Magefah," which refers to the plague by which they died -- TOSFOS DH Melamed)

20) [line 41] NISHTARBEV LESHONAM - their tongues became elongated
21) [line 42] TIBURAM - their navels
22) [line 43] ASKARAH - (O.F. bon malant) quinsy, a severe development of heat, pain, redness and swelling in the throat; choking

23) [line 45] "VA'YEHI KA'ALOS HA'KOHANIM NOS'EI ARON BRIS HA'SH-M MI'TOCH HA'YARDEN, NITKU KAPOS RAGLEI HA'KOHANIM EL HE'CHARAVAH; VA'YASHUVU MEI HA'YARDEN LI'MKOMAM, VA'YELCHU CHI'SMOL SHILSHOM AL KOL GEDOSAV." - "And it came to pass, when the Kohanim who carried the Ark of the Covenant of HaSh-m came up out of the midst of the Yarden, and the soles of the feet of the Kohanim were lifted up to the dry land (they stepped out backwards), that the waters of the Yarden returned to their place, and flowed over all its banks, as they did before." (Yehoshua 4:18)

24) [line 47] UZAH - a comrade of David who was killed by HaSh-m when he mistakenly tried to save the Aron Kodesh from falling. Chazal state that he should have made a Kal va'Chomer that if the Aron Kodesh can carry its carriers, it can certainly carry itself. Not having the proper reverence for the Aron Kodesh is a serious offence, as is found in Bamidbar Rabah 6:7, that many men of Benei Kehas were killed by the Aron Kodesh.

25) [line 48] GOREN KIDON - the threshing floor of Kidon (Divrei ha'Yamim I 13:9), also known as "Goren Nachon" (Shmuel II 6:6). The Gemara below explains the significance of each name.

26) [line 49] "VA'YAKEHU SHAM [HA'ELOKIM] AL HA'SHAL" - "[And the anger of HaSh-m was kindled against Uzah;] and HaSh-m struck him there for his error; [and there he died by the Ark of HaSh-m.]" (Shmuel II 6:7)

27) [line 49] AL ISKEI SHALU - because of a matter of an unintentional sin
28) [line 51] CHARARAH - a flat cake baked on coals
29) [line 52] AF - anger
30) [line 53] "ZEMIROS HAYU LI CHUKECHA B'VEIS MEGURAI" - "Your statutes were songs to me in my dwelling place." (Tehilim 119:54)

31) [line 54] "HA'SA'IF EINECHA BO V'EINENU..." - "If you blink your eyes at it, it is gone, [for riches suddenly make themselves wings; they fly away like an eagle towards the sky.]" (Mishlei 23:5)

32) [line 55] "VELI'VNEI KEHAS LO NASAN, KI AVODAS HA'KODESH [ALEIHEM; BA'KASEF YISA'U.]" - "But to the sons of Kehas he gave none (i.e. no wagons); because the service of the sanctuary was upon them; they carried [the Holy Vessels] upon their shoulders." (Bamidbar 7:9)

33) [line 55] V'IHU ASYEI B'AGALTA - and he brought the Aron Kodesh in a wagon

34) [last line] MILEI NAMI AMUR - they also spoke words of contempt


35) [line 1] MAN AMRICH D'IMRAYAS? - Who angered you to the extent that you were in such a state of anger [that you did not save yourself from the hands of thePelishtim]?

36) [line 8] MERI - a fatted ox

37) [line 13] BAMOS
(a) A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid) (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).
(b) BAMAS TZIBUR: Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamas Tzibur was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamas Tzibur. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamas Tzibur or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).
(c) BAMAS YACHID: Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamas Yachid anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices were allowed to be offered on a Bamas Yachid.

38) [line 17] KIDON - a spear, javelin (an implement of death, referring to the death of Uzah)

39) [line 17] NACHON - established (it afterwards established the house of Oved Edom ha'Giti, blessing him to the extent that his wife and eight daughters-in-law all bore sextuplets within the three months that it was kept in his house)

40) [line 19] "B'EVER HA'YARDEN, B'ERETZ MOAV, HO'IL MOSHE BE'ER ES HA'TORAH HA'ZOS LEIMOR." - "On the other side of the Yarden River, in the land of Moav, Moshe began expounding this law, saying:" (Devarim 1:5)

41) [line 21] "V'CHASAVTA *ALEIHEN* ES KOL DIVREI HA'TORAH HA'ZOS [B'OVRECHA...]" - "And you shall write upon them all the words of this law [when you pass over the Yarden River...]" (Devarim 27:3) - The verse quoted by our Gemara is a printer's error and should read, "V'CHASAVTA *AL HA'AVANIM* ES KOL DIVREI HA'TORAH HA'ZOS, [BA'ER HETEIV."] - "And you shall write upon the stones all the words of this law, [explaining it well.]" (Devarim 27:8)

42) [line 25] "V'ES SHTEIM ESREI HA'AVANIM HA'ELEH ASHER LAKCHU MIN HA'YARDEN, HEKIM YEHOSHUA BA'GILGAL." - "And those twelve stones, which they took from the Yarden, Yehoshua set up in Gilgal." (Yehoshua 4:20)

43) [line 29] SADU OSAN BA'SID - they plastered them over with plaster
44) [line 32] V'SHIGRU NOTIRIN SHELAHEM - they sent their scribes (similar the word "notary")

45) [line 33] V'HISI'UHA - (lit. and they lifted it (the Torah that was written under the plaster) up [and took it away]) that is, they took it away by copying it

46) [line 34] NISCHATEM GEZAR DINAM L'VE'ER SHACHAS - their fate was sealed [such that they would go down] to the Well of Destruction, i.e. Gehinom (see Tehilim 55:24; it is called a well because it constantly spews forth destruction - see Rav S. R. Hirsch there)

47) [line 36] "[KI HACHAREM TACHARIMEM...HA'KENA'ANI...] L'MA'AN ASHER LO YELAMDU ESCHEM LA'ASOS K'CHOL [TO'AVOSAM ASHER ASU L'EILOHEHEM...]" - "[But you shall utterly destroy them...the Kena'ani...] In order that they should not teach you to do like all [their abominations that they have done to their gods...]" (Devarim 20:17-18)

48) [line 40] "V'HAYU AMIM MISREFOS SID; [KOTZIM KESUCHIM B'ESH YITZATU.]" - "And the people shall be as the burnings of lime; as thorns cut up shall they be burned in the fire." (Yeshayah 33:12)

49) [line 44] "[KI SETZEI LA'MILCHAMAH AL OIVECHA...] V'SHAVISA SHIVYO." - "[When you shall go forth to battle against your enemy...] and you shall take captives." (Devarim 21:10) - This verse refers to an Eshes Yefas To'ar, a captive woman whose captor is required to convert her to Judaism before he marries her. This Beraisa teaches that a Kena'ani woman captured *outside* of Eretz Yisrael may convert.

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