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Ta'anis 3

TA'ANIS 2-5 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

*1*) [line 9] IY REBBI YEHOSHUA, NEIMA CHAD YOMA - if it (the Mishnah that says Nisuch ha'Mayim is done for seven days) is the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua, then it should say that it (Nisuch ha'Mayim) is done for only one day. RABBEINU GERSHOM omits this Girsa, because according to Rebbi Yehoshua of our Mishnah, who says that the Hazkarah of rain is mentioned on the eighth day of the festival (which is Shemini Atzeres and not Sukos), there is no reason to do the Nisuch ha'Mayim on that day (see Insights).

2) [line 19] BIK'AS BEIS CHAVARTAN - of the valley of Beis Chavartan; this probably refers to Chavran or Auran, one of the mountains where a fire was lit signaling Beis Din's declaration of the new month (Rosh ha'Shanah 22b), located in the country east of the Jordan River named Aurantis

3) [line 19] ESER NETI'OS
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7.
(b) Chazal learn from the verse, "be'Charish uva'Katzir Tishbos" (Shemos 34:21), that mid'Oraisa the prohibition against plowing the land during Shemitah starts one month before the actual Shemitah year ("Tosefes Shevi'is"). This applies both to fields and to orchards with grown trees. The Rabanan added to this prohibition and prohibited plowing a field from the Pesach before Shemitah and an orchard with grown trees from the Shavu'os before Shemitah.
(c) Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of "Eser Neti'os" teaches that if ten *saplings* are planted with equidistant spacing in an area of a Beis Se'ah (fifty square Amos), one is permitted to plow them right up to Rosh Hashanah of the Shemitah year, in spite of the Mitzvah of Tosefes Shevi'is described above. If there are less than ten saplings in this area or they are not planted as above (with equidistant spacing in the area of a Beis Se'ah), it is only permitted to plow the immediate area around each sapling up to the Shemitah year, but not the entire orchard (Shevi'is 1:6).

4) [line 20] ARAVAH
(a) On the first six days of Sukos (except Shabbos), very long willow branches were cut in Motza, near Yerushalayim, and brought to the Beis ha'Mikdash. These branches were placed upright alongside the Mizbe'ach, with their tops leaning over the Mizbe'ach. The Kohanim circled the Mizbe'ach once, reciting certain prayers. (According to one opinion (Sukah 43b), they circled the Mizbe'ach carrying these branches.)
(b) On Hoshana Rabah, the seventh day of Sukos, the Kohanim circled the Mizbe'ach seven times, amidst extensive prayers for spiritual growth, salvation and bountiful crops. If Hoshana Rabah fell on Shabbos, the willow branches that were used in the ceremony were cut before Shabbos (Sukah 45a, RAMBAM Hilchos Lulav 7:20-21).

5) [line 36] MEKAMEI D'LISMECHINHU - before they gave him Semichah


6) [line 9] D'VADARTINCHU - that I scattered you
7) [line 17] MA'AVIR HA'RU'ACH U'MAFRI'ACH HA'TAL - You remove the wind and blow away the dew

8a) [line 27] CHORFEI - early clouds, clouds that precede the rain (RASHI); (clouds that come at the time of the) early crops (TOSFOS)
b) [line 27] AFLEI/AFEILEI - late clouds, clouds that come after the rain (RASHI); [clouds that come at the time of the] late crops (TOSFOS)

9) [line 29] RU'ACH SHE'EINAH METZUYAH - an uncommonly strong wind
10) [line 30] BEI DAREI - a threshing floor
11) [line 30] NAFVASA - (O.F. van) sieves
12) [line 31] SHENIYOS L'MATAR - are second in importance to rain (help almost as much as the rain itself)

13) [line 32] D'VASAR MITRA - [clouds and wind] that come after rain
14) [line 35] ZIKA D'VASAR MITRA - wind that comes after rain [and causes dust to settle on the crops]

15a) [line 36] NEYACHA - gently
b) [line 36] RAZYA - with force
16) [line 40] GILHEI D'LEILYA - lit. "the glow of light at nighttime;" probably flashes of light caused by atmospheric static electricity. (Alternatively, auroral lights that appear at night.)

17) [line 41] SHIMSHA D'VEINEI KARCHEI - sunlight that appears between the ["bald" patches of] clouds

18) [line 41] MA'ALEI TALGA L'TUREI - snow is beneficial for the mountains
19) [line 43] "KI LA'SHELEG YOMAR HEVEI ARETZ, V'GESHEM MATAR, V'GESHEM MITROS UZO" - "For He says to the snow, 'Be on the earth', and that rain should follow upon rain and that there should be rain of the rains of his strength" (Iyov 37:6)

20) [line 44] TALGA L'TUREI - snow for mountains [is beneficial]

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