REVIEW QUESTIONS ON GEMARA AND RASHI
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sotah 45
If "Zekeinecha" implies two judges according to Rebbi Shimon, and
"ve'Shoftecha" another two according to Rebbi Yehudah, then "ve'Yatz'u" and
'u'Mad'du" should add another four judges (making seven according to the one
and nine according to the other). In fact, they both agree that "ve'Yatz'u"
comes to obligate the judges themselves to go to the scene of the murder and
not to send Sheluchim.
What does "u'Mad'du" then come to teach us?
(a) The author of our Mishnah (which obligates only the judges to
participate in the ceremony of Eglah Arufah) cannot be Rebbi Eliezer ben
Which additional two people does "ve'Shoftecha" come to include,
according to him?
(b) We have doubts whether Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov even agrees with Rebbi
Yehudah or Rebbi Shimon regarding the number of judges who had to go out.
What would be the alternative?
(c) Rav Yosef resolves the She'eilah from a Beraisa, which speaks about a
Zakein Mamrei meeting the Sanhedrin in Bei Pagi.
Where is 'Bei Pagi'?
(d) What does the Tana there say with regard to a Zakein Mamrei who met the
Sanhedrin in Bei Pagi and rebelled against them there? What does he learn
from "ve'Kamta ve'Alisa el ha'Makom ... "?
(a) Why must the Beraisa be speaking when ...
(b) Abaye refutes Rav Yosef's proof by establishing the Sanhedrin's
departure from the Lishkas ha'Gazis to perform a different Mitzvah (that
requires the entire Sanhedrin).
- ... the Zakein Mamrei encountered the entire Sanhedrin in Bei Pagi?
- ... they left the Lishkas ha'Gazis for a D'var Mitzvah and not a D'var Reshus?
(c) In view of Abaye's alternative interpretation of the Beraisa, is Rav
Yosef's proof accepted?
(d) So what have we now proved?
(a) Rebbi Yehudah extrapolates from the Pasuk "ve'Shachachta Omer ba'Sadeh",
'P'rat le'Tamun' (conforming with the Tana of our Mishnah, which Darshens
"ba'Adamah", 'P'rat le'Tamun'.
What do the Rabbanan say?
(b) How does Rav reconcile the Rabbanan with our Mishnah, by examining both
accompanying Pesukim ("Ki Yimatzei Chalal [ba'Adamah]" and "Ki Siktzor
Ketzircha be'Sadcha ve'Shachachta Omer [ba'Sadeh]")?
(c) In fact, Rebbi Yehudah will preclude 'Tamun' from 'Shikchah Dumyah
What will he then learn from "ba'Sadeh"?
(d) What do the Rabbanan learn from "be'Sadcha ve'Shachachta"?
(a) What do we initially think Rebbi Avahu Amar Rebbi Elazar means, when,
explaining Rebbi Yehudah, he learns from "be'Sadcha ve'Shachachta" 'P'rat
le'she'Tzafu Omrin le'Toch Sadeh Chaveiro'?
What then does Rebbi Avahu Amar Rebbi Elazar mean when he speaks about Tzafu
in someone else's field?
(b) The Rabbanan learn this from "be'Sadeh" "be'Sadcha".
What does Rebbi
Yehudah Darshen from "be'Sadeh" be'Sadcha"?
(c) Is Shikchah applicable to sheaves that were blown into someone else's
(d) How does this deter us from inferring from Rebbi Avahu Amar Rebbi Elazar
that 'Tzafu' would be considered Shikchah in his own field?
(a) The Tana Kama in a Beraisa, maintains that if someone places a sheaf
that he intends to take into town on top of another sheaf and then forgets
both sheaves, the bottom one is Shikchah, and the top one is not.
does Rebbi Shimon ben Rebbi Yehudah say?
(b) What do we attempt to prove from the fact that both Tana'im agree that
the top sheaf is not Shikchah?
(c) How do we refute this proof? What is the real reason that the top sheaf
is not Shikchah?
(d) If that is the reason, then why did the Tana need to mention that he
placed the one sheaf on top of the other, seeing as the Din would have been
exactly the same had he placed it on the ground?
(a) Why did Rebbi Shimon ben Rebbi Yehudah say 'Mipnei she'Hu Tzaf' (seeing
as that is not the real reason as we just explained)?
Answers to questions
(b) What did Abaye mean to say when he once announced that he felt like ben
Azai in the main streets of Teveryah? What was the name of Abaye's hometown?
(c) A certain Talmid-Chacham asked him what the Din would be if one came
across one corpse on top of another.
Why might one measure ...
(d) Is there a fourth possibility?
- ... just from the top one?
- ... just from the bottom one?
- ... from neither corpse?
(a) Abaye resolved the She'eilah (of Tamun) from the Machlokes between the
Tana Kama and Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah Amar Rebbi Shimon (who argue over
the bottom sheaf).
Assuming that both Tana'im hold like Rebbi Yehudah,
what will then be their Machlokes?
(b) We refute this proposal however.
How do we then establish their
(c) What will they both hold in the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah with regard to
Tamun by 'Min be'Mino'?
(d) In that case, why does the Tana speak in a case where the owner placed
one sheaf on top of another and not on dust or clods of earth?
(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa, explaining the Pasuk "Ki Yimatzei Chalal
ba'Adamah Nofeil ba'Sadeh" precludes Tamun be'Gal from "ba'Adamah", hanging
on a tree (even though he was killed by the sword) from "Nofeil", and
floating on the water from "ba'Sadeh".
What two D'rashos does he make from
(b) Which is the only specification from all of these that Rebbi Elazar
(c) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah asked Rebbi Elazar that, in view of the fact
that he Darshens "Chalal", why does he ignore the D'rashos of "ba'Adamah",
"Nofeil" and "ba'Sadeh".
What was his reply?
(a) On what basis does the Tana of our Mishnah exempt a corpse who was found
near a border town or a town that is inhabited mainly by Nochrim from the
Din of Eglah Arufah?
(b) What do we learn from the Pasuk "Ziknei ha'Ir"?
(c) Having taught us that we do not measure to a town which has no Beis-Din,
why does the Tana find it necessary to continue that one only measures to a
town which has a Beis-Din?
(d) We Darshen this from the Pasuk "ve'Lakchu Ziknei ha'Ir ha'Hi Eglas
How do we learn it from there?
(a) What does Rebbi Eliezer say about a corpse that one finds exactly in
between two towns? What two factors comprise this ruling?
(b) The Tana of our Mishnah rules that Yerushalayim cannot bring an Eglah
Arufah. His source is the Pasuk "Lerishtah".
What important Halachah
accompanies this D'rashah?
(c) According to Rebbi Eliezer, if a corpse is found in one spot and its
head in another, one carries the head to the body and measures from there.
Rebbi Akiva maintains the opposite.
If they are not arguing in connection with Eglah Arufah, in which connection *are* they arguing?
- ... is the basis of their Machlokes?
- ... are its ramifications?
(a) According to Rebbi Eliezer, they would measure from the navel, according
to Rebbi Akiva, from the nostrils.
What does Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov
(b) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov's source is the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Laseis
Oscha el *Tzavrei Chalelei* Resha'im".
What is the basis of the Machlokes
between Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Akiva?
(c) This Machlokes seems to follow the Machlokes between the Tana Kama of
the Beraisa, who holds that a baby's head is formed first, and Aba Shaul,
who holds that it is his navel.
How do we reconcile Aba Shaul with Rebbi
(d) What do we learn from the Pasuk in No'ach "Kol Asher Nishmas Ru'ach
(a) The elders of the Beis-Din ha'Gadol, having performed their Mitzvah (of
measuring) returned to the Lishkas ha'Gazis.
Who then brought the Eglah
(b) The calf must have never drawn a yoke.
Did it matter if it was
(c) It was taken down to a hard valley (of virgin soil).
Did it matter if
the earth there was not hard?
(d) How did they kill it?
(a) If working that valley was permanently prohibited, why was combing flax
and cleaning stones there permitted?
Answers to questions
(b) Who would make the announcement 'Yadeinu Lo Shafchu es ha'Dam ha'Zeh ...
'? What did they do prior to making the announcement?
(c) Who prayed 'Kaper le'Amcha Yisrael Asher Padisa Hashem ... '?
(d) And who declared 've'Nikaper Lahem ha'Dam'?