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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sotah 33

SOTAH 31-35 - These Dafim have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fauer in honor of the first Yahrzeit (18 Teves 5761) of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.



(a) One is permitted to Daven in any language - because the idea of Tefilah is to plead for mercy, and must come from the heart (so it needs to be expressed in whichever language one feels comfortable expressing oneself.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan said - that if someone Davens in Aramaic, the angels (who carry one's Tefilos before the Heavenly Throne) will not respond, because they are not conversant with Aramaic.

(c) Rav Yehudah extrapolates from Rebbi Yochanan's statement - that one should not make requests in Aramaic.

(d) We reconcile this with our Mishnah, which permits Davening in any language - by establishing Rav Yehudah by a Tefilas Yachid, and our Mishnah, by a Tefilas Rabim (which does not require angels to carry our prayers before Hashem's Throne, because the Pasuk Iyov states "Hein Keil Kabir Lo Yim'as" (Hashem will never reject the prayers of a community).

(a) Yochanan Kohen Gadol heard a Bas-Kol (in Aramaic) - in the Kodesh Kodshim, as he performed the Avodah on Yom Kipur, announcing that the youngsters had been victorious.

(b) The Bas-Kol was referring - to the young Kohanim of the Chashmona'im, who had gone to fight the Greeks in Antioch, and whom they had just defeated.

(c) Shimon ha'Tzadik heard a Bas-Kol in the Kodesh Kodshim on Yom Kipur - saying that the Greek king Gaskalgas, on his way to attack the Beis Hamikdash and nullify the Avodah, had been killed, and his decrees annulled.

(d) This seems to clash with what we just said (that the angels do not understand Aramaic). We answer this in two ways; one of them, by differentiating between angels and a Bas-Kol - the other, that most angels do not understand Aramaic, but Gavriel (who taught Yosef all seventy languages) does, and it was Gavriel whom the Kohanim Gedolim heard in the Kodesh Kodshim.

(a) We know that Birchas ha'Mazon may be recited in any language - from the Pasuk "Ve'achalta, Ve'sava'ta U'verachta ... ", which does not indicate any particular language.

(b) We learn from ..

1. ... the Pasuk "ve'Nefesh Ki Secheta, *Ve'sham'ah* Kol Alah" (rather than "Ve'hishbi'a Kol Alah") - that Shevu'as ha'Eidus takes effect in any language.
2. ... the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Secheta" "Secheta" - that the same applies to Shevu'as ha'Pikadon.
(c) We learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ...
1. ... "Moshe Yedaber ve'ha'Elokim Ya'anenu *be'Kol*" and "*Kol* Ram" - that the Levi'im had to read the B'rachos and K'lalos in Lashon ha'Kodesh (like Moshe taught the Torah at Har Sinai in Lashon ha'Kodesh).
2. ... "Ve'anu ha'Levi'im ... " and "*Ve'anisa* Ve'amarta (in connection with Bikurim)" - that the Parshah of Bikurim too, had to be read in Lashon ha'Kodesh.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah learns that Chalitzah must be said in Lashon ha'Kodesh from the word "*Kachah* Ye'aseh la'Ish" (and "Kachah" always implies that one may not deviate from the Torah's specific instructions). The Rabbanan learn from "Kachah" - that all the practical aspects of Chalitzah must be performed without change (seeing as the Torah writes "Kachah Ye'aseh").

(b) Their response to Rebbi Yehudah, who makes two D'rashos from the word ("Kachah" ["Koh", "Kachah"]) is - that "Kachah" is a perfectly regular word, and does not lend itself to two D'rashos.

(c) According to Rebbi Yeudah, the Torah writes "ve'Ansah ve'Amrah" by Chalitzah - to learn a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from Chalitzah on to the B'rachos and K'lalos (to teach us that they need to be said in Lashon ha'Kodesh).

(d) He cannot learn that from "Kol" "Kol" (like the Rabbanan) - because his tradition for the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' was from "ve'Ansah ve'Amrah" and not from "Kol" "Kol."



5) To substantiate what we just said, we quote a Beraisa, where Rebbi Yehudah learns from "Kachah" and "Aniyah va'Amirah" that Chalitzah and the B'rachos and the K'lalos must be said in Lashon ha'Kodesh. He learns from the Pasuk "*Koh* Sevarchu" - that Birchas Kohanim too, must be said in Lashon ha'Kodesh.


(a) The Torah describes the location of Har Gerizim and Har Eival as "Acharei Derech Mevo ha'Shemesh". Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa, interprets ...
1. ... "Derech Mevo ha'Shemesh" to mean - the east side of the Yarden, where they were currently encamped as Moshe told them about the two mountains.
2. ... "Acharei" to mean - far from the east side of the Yarden (towards the west).
(b) Much later, the Kutim lived there. The Kutim - were one of the nations whom Sancheriv moved into Eretz Yisrael, to replace the Jews that he had exiled from the land.

(c) Based on the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Elonei Moreh" "Elonei Moreh", Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Yossi proved the Kutim wrong - because, seeing as they did not accept the oral Torah, they would not have Darshened this 'Gezeirah-Shavah', so from where would they know that Elonei Moreh was synonymous with Sh'chem?

(d) Rebbi Elazar disagrees with Rebbi Yehudah. He interprets the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ve'hayah be'Ovrechem es ha'Yarden" to mean - that Har Gerizim and Har Eival (where they would erect the stones) were situated close to the west bank of the Yarden.
2. ... "Acharei Derech Mevo ha'Shemesh" - that it was situated far from the west coast of Eretz Yisrael.
(a) The problem with the Pasuk ...
1. ... "be'Eretz ha'Cena'ani" is - that Sh'chem was situated in the territory of the Chivi (as the Torah writes in Va'yishlach), and not of the Cena'ani.
2. ... "ha'Yoshev ba'Aravah" is - that it is not situated in a flat area, but in hilly country.
3. ... "Mul ha'Gilgal" - that it is nowhere near Sh'chem.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov therefore Darshens the Pasuk out context. He explains the word "Derech" to mean that Hashem was issuing them with instructions now, that, when they returned to Eretz Yisrael from Bavel, they should take their cue from the way they were about to enter the Land now and enter it via trodden paths, and not through fields and vineyards. He explains ...
1. ... "ha'Yoshev" - to mean that they were to enter it via built-up areas, and not via desert country.
2. ... "ba'Aravah" - that they were to enter it via flat country and not via hills and mountains.
(c) Hashem needed to tell them all this at that time - because He knew that, although they were currently guided by the Clouds of Glory, this would not be the case when they crossed the Yarden the second time (by which time, the Clouds would have ceased to function), and that consequently, they would then have to return to Eretz Yisrael under their own steam.
(a) When Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael ...
1. ... the Aron began to travel in front of the camp - and not behind the first two tribes, as it had done in the desert.
2. ... it was the Kohanim who carried the Aron - and not the Levi'im, as they had then.
(b) The Kohanim also carried the Aron - when they surrounded Yericho and when they brought it into its place in the Kodesh Kodshim after Shlomoh built the Beis Hamikdash.
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