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Sotah 42

SOTAH 42 - This Daf has been sponsored through the generous donation of Rabbi Heshy Wolf of Brooklyn N.Y.

1) [line 1] "VA'YEHI HU B'SHA'AR BINYAMIN, V'SHAM BA'AL PEKIDUS, U'SHMO YIR'IYAH BEN SHELEMYAH BEN CHANANYAH; VA'YISPOS ES YIRMEYAHU HA'NAVI LEIMOR, 'EL HA'KASDIM ATAH NOFEL.' VA'YOMER YIRMEYAHU, 'SHEKER; EINENI NOFEL AL HA'KASDIM,' V'LO SHAMA EILAV; VA'YISPOS YIR'IYAH B'YIRMEYAHU, VA'YVI'EIHU EL HA'SARIM." - "And when he was in the Gate of Binyamin, a sentry was there, whose name was Yir'iyah, the son of Shelemyah, the son of Chananyah (ben Azur); and he seized Yirmeyahu the prophet, saying, 'You are deserting to the Kasdim!' Then Yirmeyahu said, 'That is false; I am not deserting to the Kasdim!' And he did not listen to him; so Yir'iyah took Yirmeyahu, and brought him to the princes." (Yirmeyahu 37:13-14)

2) [line 7] "KI ADAS CHANEF GALMUD, [V''ESH ACHELAH AHOLEI SHOCHAD.]" - "For the company of flatterers shall be forlorn, [and fire shall consume the tents of bribery.]" (Iyov 15:34)

3) [line 8] KERAKEI HA'YAM - fortified port cities
4) [line 9] GEMULAH DA MI'BA'ALAH - this one is separated from her husband
5) [line 11] "V'AMART BI'LVAVECH, 'MI YALAD LI ES ELEH, VA'ANI SHECHULAH V'GALMUDAH; GOLALH V'SURAH, V'ELEH MI GIDEL, HEN ANI NISH'ARTI LEVADI, ELEH EIFOH HEM.'" - "Then shall you say in your heart, 'Who has borne me these, seeing as I have lost my children, a solitary, an exile, and a wanderer to and fro? And who has brought up these? Behold, I was left alone; these, where have they been?'" (Yeshayah 49:21)

6) [line 14] ARBA KITOS EIN MEKABLOS PENEI SHECHINAH - four groups of people will not merit to greet the Shechinah -- see Sha'arei Teshuvah 3:172 for elaboration

7) [line 14] KITOS - groups
8a) [line 15] LEITZIM - scoffers, jokers
b) [line 15] SHAKARIM - liars
9) [line 16] "[YOM MALKENU, HECHELU SARIM CHAMAS MI'YAYIN;] MASHACH YADO ES LOTZETZIM." - "[On the day of our King, (when the King of kings manifests himself) the [heavenly] ministers [of the nations] became sick from the heat of [drinking] the [poisoned] wine;] He withdrew His hand from the scoffers." (Hoshea 7:5) - This translation follows the implied meaning of our Gemara. Most Mefarshim to Hoshea translate this verse with reference to a corrupt, mortal king.

10) [line 18] "...DOVER SHEKARIM LO YIKON L'NEGED EINAI." - "[He who works deceit shall not dwell in my house;] he who tells lies shall not remain in my sight." (Tehilim 101:7)

11) [line 19] "KI LO KEL CHAFETZ RESHA ATAH; LO YEGURCHA RA." - "For You are not a G-d Who desires wickedness; no evil dwells with You." (Tehilim 5:5)

12) [line 37] TZADIK ATAH... - (this is the Derashah of Chazal on the verse that was quoted)

13) [line 21] MEGURCHA - your dwelling


(a) There is a Mitzvah to appoint a Kohen at the onset of a war to speak to the soldiers and encourage them. This Kohen is anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah, and is therefore called the Meshu'ach Milchamah.
(b) Before the soldiers leave Eretz Yisrael for the front, the Kohen reads the verses in Devarim (20:5-7) which order certain people to return to their homes. These people are: 1. a person who recently built a house but did not yet consecrate it; 2. a person who recently planted a vineyard but did not yet redeem the fourth-year fruits; and 3. a person who recently betrothed a woman but did not yet marry her. A Shoter (officer) present also reads the next verse (ibid. 20:8) that instructs all of those who are afraid of the battle (because of their personal sins) to return to their homes, lest they instill fear in the rest of the soldiers going to battle. (This interpretation of the word "afraid" follows the opinion of Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili or Rebbi Yosi (Mishnah to Daf 44a). Rebbi Akiva (ibid.) takes this verse literally.)
(c) Before the onset of each battle, the Kohen admonishes the soldiers not to fear the battle, reading verses 20:3-4. He encourages them that even if their only merit is the fact that they read Keri'as Shema twice daily, this is enough to save them. (RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 7:1-3, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #526)
(d) The abovementioned verses are presented here for handy reference:

1. Verse 2 "V'HAYAH K'KARAVCHEM EL HA'MILCHAMAH; V'NIGASH HA'KOHEN V'DIBER EL HA'AM." - "And it shall be, when you have come near the battle, that the Kohen shall approach and speak to the people." (Devarim 20:2)
2. Verse 3 "V'AMAR ALEIHEM 'SHEMA YISRAEL, ATEM KEREVIM HA'YOM LA'MILCHAMAH AL OYVEICHEM; AL YERACH LEVAVCHEM, AL TIRE'U V'AL TACHPEZU, V'AL TA'ARTZU MIPNEIHEM.'" - "And he shall say to them, 'Hear, O Yisrael, you are coming near this day to the battle against your enemies; let not your hearts faint, fear not, and do not tremble, nor be you terrified because of them.'" (Devarim 20:3)
3. Verse 4 "KI HASH-M ELOKEICHEM HA'HOLECH IMACHEM L'HILACHEM LACHEM IM OYVEICHEM, LEHOSHI'A ESCHEM." - "For HaSh-m your Elokim is He Who goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you." (Devarim 20:4)
4. Verse 5 "V'DIBRU HA'SHOTRIM EL HA'AM LEIMOR, 'MI HA'ISH ASHER BANAH VAYIS CHADASH V'LO CHANACHO, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; PEN YAMUS BA'MILCHAMAH V'ISH ACHER YACHNECHENU.'" - "And the officers shall speak to the people, saying, 'Who is the man who has built a new house, and has not dedicated it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicates it.'" (Devarim 20:5)
5. Verse 6 "U'MI HA'ISH ASHER NATA KEREM V'LO CHILELO, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; PEN YAMUS BA'MILCHAMAH V'ISH ACHER YECHALELENU" - "And who is the man who has planted a vineyard, and has not yet redeemed [the fourth-year fruits of] it? Let him also go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man redeems it." (Devarim 20:6)
6. Verse 7 "U'MI HA'ISH ASHER ERAS ISHAH V'LO LEKACHAH, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; PEN YAMUS BA'MILCHAMAH V'ISH ACHER YIKACHENAH" - "And who is the man who has betrothed a wife, and has not married her? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man marries her." (Devarim 20:7)
7. Verse 8 "V'YASFU HA'SHOTRIM L'DABER EL HA'AM, V'AMRU 'MI HA'ISH HA'YAREI V'RACH HA'LEVAV, YELECH V'YASHOV L'VEISO; V'LO YIMAS ES LEVAV ECHAV KI'LVAVO.'" And the officers shall speak further to the people, and they shall say, "Who is the man who is fearful and fainthearted? Let him go and return to his house, lest his brothers' hearts faint along with his heart.'" (Devarim 20:8)
8. Verse 9 "V'HAYAH K'CHALOS HA'SHOTRIM L'DABER EL HA'AM; U'FAKDU SAREI TZEVA'OS B'ROSH HA'AM" - "And it shall be, when the officers have finished speaking to the people, that they shall appoint captains of the armies to lead the people." (Devarim 20:9)
15) [line 25] "V'HAYAH K'KARAVCHEM EL HA'MILCHAMAH; V'NIGASH HA'KOHEN V'DIBER EL HA'AM." - This verse, as well as all the other verses that the Gemara discusses in connection with the Meshu'ach Milchamah, are brought above, in entry #14.

16) [line 30] "VA'YAKUMU HA'ANASHIM ASHER NIKVU V'SHEIMOS, VA'YACHAZIKU VA'SHIVYAH, V'CHOL MA'ARUMEIHEM HILBISHU MIN HA'SHALAL, VA'YALBISHUM VA'YAN'ILUM, VA'YA'ACHILUM VA'YASHKUM VA'YSUCHUM, VA'YNAHALUM BA'CHAMORIM L'CHOL KOSHEL, VA'YVI'UM YERECHO IR HA'TEMARIM ETZEL ACHEIHEM; VA'YASHUVU SHOMRON" - "And the men who were mentioned by name (in verse 12) rose up, and took the captives, and clothed with the booty all who were in need of clothing among them, and dressed them, and gave them shoes, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the weak ones on donkeys, and brought them to Yericho, the city of palm trees, to their brothers [from the Kingdom of Yehudah]. Then they returned to Shomron (since they were officials of the Kingdom of Yisrael)." (Divrei ha'Yamim II 28:15) - This verse describes the actions of certain officials of the Kingdom of Yisrael, after their army vanquished the Kingdom of Yehudah in battle. They were instructed by Oded the prophet to return the captives to their homes and they complied in a superlative fashion. (The word "v'Gomer" after this verse appears to be unnecessary.)

17) [line 36] TZAHALAS SUSIM - the neighing of horses
18) [line 37] TZICHTZU'AH CHARAVOS - the clashing of swords
19) [line 37] HAGAFAS TERISIN - the striking of their shields together
20) [line 37] SHIF'AS HA'KALGASIN - the hordes of armies
21) [line 37] KOL KERANOS - the sound of the horns
22) [line 38] KOL TZEVACHOS - the sound of the soldiers shouting
23) [line 38] NITZCHONO - strength
24) [line 40] SHOVACH - the commander-in-chief of the army of Hadarezer, king of Aram, who was killed by David ha'Melech. Amon had previously hired mercenaries from Aram to aid them in their war against Yisrael. David ha'Melech sent Yo'av and Avishai to lead the army of Yisrael in battle and they returned victorious. Aram then regrouped and brought over a large army led by Shovach. David ha'Melech himself fought against him and was victorious (Shmuel II 10:1-19, Divrei ha'Yamim I 19:1-19)

25) [line 43] MEMUNEH - one who is appointed
26) [line 45] SEGAN - the deputy Kohen Gadol, who has been prepared to officiate in place of the Kohen Gadol, should he become unfit to do the Avodah (RASHI to Sotah 40b). According to the Girsa in Yoma 39a, he always stays at the Kohen Gadol's right-hand side

27) [line 45] L'MAH SEGAN MEMUNEH? - For what is the Segan appointed?
28) [last line] SEFAR - border


29) [line 1] SHIM'U DIVREI MA'ARCHEI HA'MILCHAMAH V'CHIZRU - Listen to the criteria of those who wage war (i.e. the announcement of the Kohen as to who may go to war and who must return home)

30) [line 4] MEGIFIN - striking [their shields together]
31) [line 4] MERI'IN - sounding [their horns]
32) [line 4] TZOVCHIN - shouting
33) [line 5] ROMSIN - stamping [the hoofs of their horses]
34) [line 6] GOLYAS - Goliath
35) [line 6] GILUY PANIM - brazenness

36) [line 7] "...BERU LACHEM ISH V'YERED ELAI." - "[And he stood and shouted to the armies of Yisrael, and said to them, 'Why have you come out to set your battle in array? Am I not a Pelishti, and you, servants to Shaul?] Choose a man for you, and let him come down to me!" (Shmuel I 17:8)

37) [line 10] "ISH EFRASI" - a man who comes from Beis Lechem, which is also known as Efras

38) [line 13] "IM YUCHAL L'HILACHEM ITI V'HIKANI, V'HAYINU LACHEM LA'AVADIM; V'IM ANI UCHAL LO V'HIKISIV, VI'HEYISEM LANU LA'AVADIM, VA'AVADTEM OSANU." - "If he is able to fight with me, and kill me, then we will be your servants; but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then you shall be our servants, and serve us." (Shmuel I 17:9)

39) [line 14] "[VA'YOMER HA'PELISHTI EL DAVID,] 'HA'CHELEV ANOCHI, KI ATAH VA ELAI BA'MAKLOS?' [VA'YKALEL HA'PELISHTI ES DAVID B'EILOHAV.]" - "And [Golyas] the Pelishti said to David, 'Am I a dog, that you come against me with sticks?' And the Pelishti cursed David by his gods." (Shmuel I 17:43)

40) [line 16] "[VA'YOMER DAVID EL HA'PELISHTI,] 'ATAH BA ELAI V'CHEREV UVA'CHANIS UV'CHIDON; V'ANOCHI VA ELECHA B'SHEM HASH-M TZEVAKOS ELOKEI MA'ARCHOS YISRAEL ASHER CHERAFTA!'" - "Then David said to the Pelishti, 'You come against me with a sword, and with a saber, and with a javelin; but I come against you in the Name of HaSh-m Tzevakos, the Elokim of the armies of Yisrael, whom you have blasphemed!" (Shmuel I 17:45)

41) [line 19] "VA'YIGASH HA'PELISHTI HASHKEM V'HA'AREV; VA'YISYATZEV ARBA'IM YOM." - "And the Pelishti drew near morning and evening, and presented himself for forty days." (Shmuel I 17:16)

42) [line 22] "VA'YETZEI ISH HA'BENAYIM MI'MACHANOS PELISHTIM, GOLYAS SHEMO, MI'GAS; GOVHO SHESH AMOS VA'ZERES." - "And there came out a champion from the camp of the Pelishtim, named Golyas, of Gas, whose height was six Amos and a Zeres (approximately 3-4 meters tall)." (Shmuel I 17:4)

43) [line 24] MEVUNEH MI'KOL MUM - well-built (proportioned); without blemish
44) [line 25] ASUY K'VINYAN - as [big as] a building
45) [line 26] PAPEI - (O.F. padrastres) step-fathers (since only one of them was his father, the rest of them are called step-fathers) (RASHI)

46) [line 27] NANI - (a) father (RASHI); (b) a dog (ARUCH)
47) [line 28] GAS - a winepress
48) [line 28] KESIV ME'AROS V'KARINAN MA'ARCHOS - (source -- Shmuel I 17:23)
49) [line 29] HE'ERU - had illicit relations
50) [line 30] HA'RAFAH - (lit. the giant) a name for Orpah (Shmuel II 21:16, 18, 20, 22)
51) [line 34] KEHA'RIFOS - like grits
52) [line 35] "VA'TIFROS HA'MASACH" - "and she spread the covering" (Shmuel II 17:19)
53) [line 36] "IM TICHTOSH [ES] HA'EVIL BA'MACHTESH, B'SOCH HA'RIFOS, BA'ELI; [LO SASUR ME'ALAV IVALTO.]" - "If you will pound a fool in a mortar, together with the grits, with a pestle; [his foolishness will not be removed from him.]" (Mishlei 27:22)

54) [line 38] YISHBI V'NOV - one of the sons of Orpah, as stated in the verse "v'Yishbi Venov Asher b'Ylidei ha'Rafah..." - "And Yishbi Venov, who was from the sons of Harafah (Orpah) (lit. the giant)..." (Shmuel II 21:16)

55) [line 42] "CHETZ CHANISO" - "the arrow of his saber" (Shmuel I 17:7) - The word Chetz is spelled with a "Ches" but is read with an "Ayin," "Etz Chaniso," which means "the handle of his saber."

56) [line 44] V'LO LIFTACH BEI KELAL!? - Then why [do the verses] speak about him at all!?

57) [line 46] ASUY K'SHOVACH - he was as [big as] a dovecote
58) [line 47] NISHPACH LEFAVAV K'KITON - (lit. pours out in front of him like [water pouring out of] a pitcher) collapses

59) [line 48] "ASHPASO K'KEVER PASU'ACH; KULAM GIBORIM" - "his quiver is like an open grave; they are all champions" (Yirmeyahu 5:16)

60) [line 49] ASHPASOS - heaps
61) [line 50] UMANIM B'KERAV - marksmen (but are not strong with regard to hand-to-hand combat)

62) [line 51] ZEVEL - dung
63) [line 53] "DE'AGAH V'LEV ISH YASHCHENAH..." - "[If there is] a worry in one's heart, he should suppress it..." (Mishlei 12:25) - (lit. "he should lower it from his mind") The Gemara only refers to the Derashah, where this word is read "Yischenah" or "Yesichenah." (MINCHAS SHAI)

64a) [line 54] YISCHENAH MI'DA'ATO - [the verse recommends that] he should remove his worry from his mind
b) [last line] YESICHENAH LA'ACHEIRIM - [the verse recommends that] he should talk about it with others; (a) so that they should give him advice (RASHI to Yoma 75a); (b) so that they should pray for him (ARUCH Erech Sach #6)

65) [last line] V'CHOL KINUYAV - and all of its appellations (there was a piece of parchment in the Aron upon which was written the Shem ha'Meforash and all of its appellations -- DEVAR SHAUL, see RABEINU GERSHOM to Bava Basra 14b)

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