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Sotah 27

SOTAH 26,27,29,30 - These Dafim have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fauer in honor of the first Yahrzeit (18 Teves 5761) of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.

1) [line 1] DUMAH - a woman who is the subject of the gossip of her town (with regard to her alleged illicit relations)

2) [line 6] V'SISBERA?! NOSEI LECHATCHILAH?! - Do you really think so?! Can he marry her in the first place?!

3) [line 12] EIN ISHAH MIS'ABERES ELA SAMUCH L'VESTAH - a woman only becomes pregnant from relations that take place one day before she menstruates

4) [line 12] VESTAH (VESES)
(a) A woman's Veses is the fixed monthly cycle when she usually menstruates. Every time a woman gets her period, she must consider that she may get her next period on the same date in the next month. On that day she is prohibited to her husband, whether she saw blood one or two times on that calendar date (Veses she'Eino Kavu'a) or three times in a row (Veses Kavu'a).
(b) The Gemara (Nidah 63 and elsewhere, see Chart there) lists various types of Vestos:

1. VESES HA'GUF - Bleeding that occurs along with sneezing, body-aches, etc. (Mishnah Nidah 63a)
2. VESES B'ONES (Circumstantial Veses), when the Ones does not directly cause the onset of the Veses (see TOSFOS to Nidah 63b DH Achlah) - Bleeding that occurs after eating garlic, onions or peppercorns (Gemara Nidah 63b)
3. VESES B'ONES, when the Ones directly causes the onset of the Veses (ibid.) - Bleeding that occurs after jumping or other physical activities (Nidah 11a). (The Halachic ruling is that such a Veses must be coupled with another factor, such as the day of the week or month on which the Veses occurred, in order to establish a Veses (YD 189:17).
4. VESES HAFLAGAH (Intervals) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 20th of Nisan, 9th of Iyar and 28th of Iyar. Each of the three intervals is 20 days. (Note that blood must be seen *4* times to create this Veses.) (A Veses Haflagah occurs after a certain interval of *days*. However according to the understanding of at least one Acharon (Chidushei Hafla'ah beg. of YD 189), such a Veses can be established based on an interval of a set number of *hours* as well, such as a woman who sees blood every 600 hours.)
5. VESES HA'CHODESH (Calendar date) - e.g. seeing blood on 1st of Nisan, 1st of Iyar and 1st of Sivan (Note that the intervals are not similar.)
6. VESES OF THE DAYS OF THE WEEK - e.g. seeing blood on Sunday, three weeks later on Sunday and three weeks later on Sunday. The day of the week fixes the Veses and therefore three times suffice to create a Veses (RAMBAN 64a citing TOSFOS).
(c) Each of the above Vestos can be expressed in a number of ways (a "sub-Veses"):
1. L'DILUGIN (Incremental) - Where the Haflagah, calendar date or day of the week *increases incrementally*, e.g. Haflagos of 11, 12 and 13 days.
2. L'SEIRUGIN (Alternating) - Where the Veses occurs every *other* time, e.g. every second Rosh Chodesh
3. L'SHA'AH KEVU'AH - Where the Veses occurs at a certain *time of day*, e.g. eating garlic at sunrise (BEIS YOSEF, beg. of YD 189, citing the RA'AVAD in BA'ALEI HA'NEFESH)
4. TZIRUF (Combination) - A Veses that is established by a *combination* of two factors (such as was described above, b3)
(d) There are two differences between a Veses Kavu'a and a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a:
1. When a woman has a Veses Kavu'a, she is not Metamei me'Es l'Es (i.e. she does not become Teme'ah *retroactively* for 24 hours), whereas if she has a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a, some Tana'im rule that she is Teme'ah retroactively me'Es l'Es.
2. According to the opinion that "Vestos are mid'Oraisa" (Nidah 16a), when a woman has a Veses Kavu'a and she did not do an internal examination on that date, but rather afterwards, even if she found no blood, she is nevertheless Teme'ah.
5) [line 14] LO MANTAR LAH - he does not watch her
6) [line 30] SUMA - a blind person
7a) [last line] CHIGERES - a lame woman
b) [last line] GIDEMES - a woman whose hands are cut off


8) [line 3] ILEMES - a woman who cannot speak


9) [line 13] BO VA'YOM - on that day [that the Chachamim appointed Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah to be the Nasi in place of Raban Gamliel, as explained in Berachos 28a.] Raban Gamliel's policy was to limit entrance to the Beis ha'Midrash only to a scholar who was "Tocho k'Varo," i.e. whose inside was known to match his outside (as a result of which many great Talmidei Chachamim were refused entry). When Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah became the Nasi, he removed the guard from the Beis ha'Midrash, with the dramatic result that so many Talmidim poured in, that four hundred (others say, seven hundred) benches were added. In his opinion, anyone who wished to learn should be entitled to enter. Due to the sudden influx of Talmidim who had previously been barred from entering the Beis ha'Midrash by Raban Gamliel, many issues that had remained obscure were now discussed. Maseches Eduyos was composed on that day. The Talmidei Chachamim all "testified" (Edus = testimony) what they had received from their Rebbes. So powerful was the Divine inspiration that ensued that the entire Maseches is Halachah. Raban Gamliel (in order to prove irrefutably that his actions were l'Shem Shamayim and not, as it may appear, out of arrogance), continued to appear daily in the Beis ha'Midrash, not missing as much as one single day - in spite of his having been deposed!

10) [line 14] "(U'CHLI) [V'CHOL KLI] CHERES ASHER YIPOL MEHEM EL TOCHO; KOL ASHER B'SOCHO YITMA, [V'OSO SISHBORU.]" - "And any earthenware utensil into which they (Sheratzim) will fall; everything [that is a food or drink] that is inside it shall become Tamei and you shall break that utensil." (Vayikra 11:33)

(a) All objects belong to one of three categories:

  1. Sources of Tum'ah
  2. Objects that can become Tamei
  3. Objects that cannot become Tamei
(b) All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah."
(c) When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. (Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.)
(d) A Sheni L'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa. Even mid'Rabanan, there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah, however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.) However, Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah *does* bring a source from the Torah that a Sheni l'Tum'ah can make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa as a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. The Halachah follows the former opinion.
(e) Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei. However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul."
12) [line 24] "U'MADOSEM MI'CHUTZ LA'IR ES PE'AS KEDMAH ALPAYIM BA'AMAH [V'ES PE'AS NEGEV ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'ES PE'AS YAM ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'ES PE'AS TZAFON ALPAYIM BA'AMAH V'HA'IR BA'TAVECH; ZEH YIHEYEH LAHEM MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM.]" - "And you shall measure outside the city on the eastern side 2000 Amos, [and on the southern side 2000 Amos, and on the western side 2000 Amos, and on the northern side 2000 Amos, with the city in the center; this shall constitute the city's open areas.]" (Bamidbar 35:5)

13) [line 25] "[U'MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM ASHER TITNU LA'LEVIYIM] MI'KIR HA'IR VA'CHUTZAH ELEF AMAH SAVIV." - "[The open areas that you shall give the Leviyim] shall extend outwards 1000 Amos from the city wall all around." (Bamidbar 35:4)

14) [line 29] MIGRASH - the open spaces outside of the cities of the Leviyim which extend one thousand Amos from the wall of the city

15) [line 30] TECHUM SHABBOS
(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or *place of Shevisah* for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.
(c) The Tana'im of our Mishnah argue as to whether Techumin are mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. The Halachah follows the opinion that they are mid'Rabanan (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 27:1)

16) [line 42] "HEN YIKTELENI, LO AYACHEL..." - "Even if He would kill me, I would place my trust in Him..." (Iyov 13:15) - It is also possible to translate this phrase as, "But if He will kill me, I will no longer place my trust in Him"

17) [line 42] V'ADAYIN HA'DAVAR SHAKUL - and the matter (according to this verse) is still unresolved (lit. balances equally) [if he served the Creator out of love or fear]

18) [line 43] "...AD EGVA LO ASIR TUMASI MIMENI." - "...until I die I will not agree with you in saying that I was not perfect [in serving HaSh-m.]" (Iyov 27:5)

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