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1) [line 1] V'LO SHIMESH TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM - but did not attend upon Talmidei Chachamim as a disciple, to learn the correct interpretations of the Mishnayos based upon the methods of the Gemara
2) [line 3] AM HA'ARETZ
3) [line 4] BUR - an ignoramus (who does not have proper manners)
4) [line 4] KUSI
5) [line 5] MAGOSH - a magician [who performs magic tricks by slight of
8) [line 8] TANI TANA V'LO YADA MAI AMAR - [this person who learned Torah but did not attend upon Talmidei Chachamim also] learns and does not know [the meaning of] what he is saying
9) [line 17] "YERA ES HASH-M, BENI, VA'MELECH, IM SHONIM AL TIS'ARAV." - "My son, fear HaSh-m and the king. Do not mingle with those who are given to change." (Mishlei 24:21) - The word "Shonim" (inconsistent people) is the verb for those who study Mishnayos by repeating ("Shonim") them.
10) [line 20] SHONIN B'CHET - they transgress the same sin more than once
12) [line 22] HA'TANA'IM MEVALEI OLAM - those who learn Mishnayos are those who ruin the world
13) [line 26] "HALICHOS OLAM LO" - "His ways are as of old" (Chabakuk 3:6) - In Megilah 28b this statement ends with the words, "Al Tikri Halichos, Ela Halachos." - "Do not read Halichos (ways), but rather Halachos," i.e., those who learn and teach Halachos uphold the world and make it a better place.
14) [line 26] ELA SHE'MORIN HALACHAH MI'TOCH MISHNASAN - at this point the Gemara means that the Halachos that these people teach are mistaken, since they did not delve deeply into their Torah-learning. Without a teacher to teach them the correct interpretations of the Mishnayos based upon the methods of the Gemara, and whether the Halachah follows a particular Mishnah or not, these people will surely make mistakes.
15) [line 28] TZALYANIS - who prays a lot
19) [line 41] HA'MEVA'ET B'RABOSAV - who rebels against his teachers
21) [line 43] "KI RABIM CHALALIM HIPILAH; VA'ATZUMIM KOL HARUGEHA." - "For she has cast down many wounded; and there is a profound number of those whom she has killed (METZUDAS DAVID)." (Mishlei 7:26) - "Hipilah" refers to the Talmid Chacham who is not fit to decide Halachic questions, since it is related to the word "Nefel" (a stillborn), and the Gemara calls this person a "Katan she'Lo Kalu Lo Chadashav." "Atzumim" refers to the Talmid Chacham who is fit to decide Halachic questions but does not, since he is "Otzem" (closes) his mouth and does not take upon himself the responsibility for which he is legitimately prepared (RASHI).
22) [line 1] V'HA RABA ORI!? - but Rabah [bar Nachmani] decided Halachic questions [well before he reached the age of forty] (this is evident since he only lived until the age of forty -- Rosh Hashanah 18a)
23) [line 2] B'SHAVIN - (a) [when the Talmid Chacham who is less than forty years of age is] on the same level [of learning, understanding and maturity as the greatest sage of the city, which was the case regarding Rabah bar Nachmani, he may decide Halachic matters] (RASHI, RI, RABEINU CHANANEL); (b) [when the Talmid Chacham who is less than forty years of age is] on the same level [of learning, understanding and maturity as the greatest sage of the city, he may *not* decide Halachic matters; only when he is greater than the greatest sage of the city, which was the case regarding Rabah bar Nachmani.] (TOSFOS)
24) [line 3] PARUSH SHICHMI - (a) a person (lit. an ascetic, as in all of the following) who performs Mitzvos like the people of *Schechem*, who performed Bris Milah for alterior motives and not l'Shem Shamayim (for the sake of Heaven) (RASHI); (b) a person who "carries the Mitzvos on his shoulder (*Shechem*)," i.e. who displays them for all to take note of his righteousness (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)
25) [line 3] PARUSH NIKFI - (a) a person who shuffles along, striking (*Nokef*) his feet against the rocks (RASHI); (b) a person who states, "Lend (*Akif*) me money and I will perform Mitzvos" (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)
26) [line 3] PARUSH KIZA'I - (a) a person who walks with closed eyes, pretending not to look at things at which it is prohibited to look, and strikes his head against walls until he lets blood (*Makiz*) on the walls (RASHI); (b) a person who performs a Mitzvah after he transgresses an Aveirah, claiming that one balances out (*Mekiz*) the other (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver)
27) [line 4] PARUSH MEDUCHYA - (a) a person who walks stooped like a certain type of curved pestle (*Meduchyah*) (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa, PARUSH *MIN HA'NECHAYAH* - a person who states, "From the little money that I have I will subtract (*Menakeh*) in order to do Mitzvos (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of the Penei Moshe); (c) a person who states, "I will do the Mitzvos as long as I (or my descendents) do not lower myself beneath a certain level of status, wealth, etc. I will only take off (*Menakeh*) what I have above this level (TOSFOS, according to the explanation of Melo ha'Ro'im)
28) [line 8] HA'MAKIZ DAM LA'KOSALIM - lets blood on the walls
31) [line 17] D'METAMRA METAMRA - acts that are committed in hiding are
34) [line 18] MEHANEI D'CHAFU GUNDEI - from those people that cloak themselves with black garments (as if they are saintly when they are really not)
35) [line 20] TZEVU'IN - hypocrites