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Sotah 16

SOTAH 16 - Larry and Marsha Wachsman have dedicated this Daf in honor of their wonderful friends, David and Gerti Kornfeld, to whom they are eternally grateful for all the good and wonderful things they do.

(a) BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built in Yerushalayim (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid) (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).
(b) BAMAS TZIBUR - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamas Tzibur was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamas Tzibur. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamas Tzibur or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).
(c) BAMAS YACHID - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamas Yachid anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices were allowed to be offered on a Bamas Yachid.
(d) Shiloh is the city in the portion of Efrayim where the Mishkan was built after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. The Mishkan stood there for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).
(e) The Beis Olamim is the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was called by this name, the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah.

2) [line 5] KUPASO - one's box, basket
3) [line 14] OKEVES - circumvents, supercedes
4) [line 23] MEKOM KINUS SE'AR V'NIR'EH - a place that has a collection of hair and that is exposed

5) [line 19] "V'HAYAH VA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I YEGALACH ES KOL SE'ARO; ES ROSHO, V'ES ZEKANO, V'ES GABOS EINAV, V'ES KOL SE'ARO YEGALE'ACH..." - "And on the seventh day he shall shave off all of his hair; [the hair of] his head, his beard and his eyebrows and all of his hair he shall shave off. [And he shall immerse his clothes, and immerse his flesh in water, and he shall be Tahor.]" (Vayikra 14:9)

6) [line 25] SEI'AR HA'RAGLAYIM - the hair that grows in one's private parts (lit. the hair of the feet)

7) [line 25] BEIS HA'SHECHI - the armpit
8) [line 26] DELA'AS - a [hairless] pumpkin
9) [line 31] OKEVES MID'RABANAN HI - this Halachah (of Metzora) supercedes a Rabbinic interpretation of the verse, as opposed to an open verse (According to MAHARATZ CHIYOS and RADAL, the Girsa should be "OKEVES *MIDRASH* HI")

10) [last line] KELALEI U'FERATEI
See next entry.


(a) In order to extract the Halachah from the verses of the Torah, many Tana'im interpret the verses on the basis of Kelalim (generalizations) and Peratim (specifications). Others interpret the verses on the basis of Ribuyim (inclusions, i.e. qualifications that enlarge the scope of the law) and Mi'utim (exclusions).
(b) According to the approach that learns Ribuyei u'Mi'utei, when a Mi'ut is followed by a Ribuy, then everything is included except for *one item* that is totally dissimilar to the limiting Mi'ut. According to the approach that learns Kelalei u'Fratei, when a Klal is followed by a Perat, which is followed in turn by another Klal, then everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Perat is included. Anything that is not in the *general category* of the limiting Perat is not included. (This means that the verse will include *less* instances than the first opinion assumed.)

12) [line 8] RAKVUVIS YEREK - decayed vegetable matter
13) [line 9] D'HAVAI AFAR - that becomes classified as "Afar" (dirt)

14) [line 11] EFER PARAH
(a) The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
(b) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)

15) [line 12] ROK YEVAMAH - the saliva of a Yevamah (YIBUM)
(a) If a married man dies childless, his widow must undergo Yibum (the marriage of a dead man's brother with his wife), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum.
(b) If the brother chooses not to marry her, he must perform Chalitzah (a procedure in Beis Din that absolves her of the Mitzvah of Yibum - ibid.). He appears before a Beis Din of three and states, "I do not want to marry her," after which his sister-in-law approaches him before the elders, takes off his right sandal and spits in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build up a family for his brother," and she is then free to marry whomever she wants.
(c) The *connection* of the brother to the dead man's wife, which obligates one of the two, is called Zikah. It is comparable to the state of Eirusin (betrothal) before a marriage. The Tana of the Mishnah from Yevamos rules that the Zikah "connects" the Yevamah with all of the brothers, not only the oldest. While the Yevamah is waiting for Yibum or Chalitzah, she is called a Shomeres Yavam.

(a) THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (*Tziporei Metzora*), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a new clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(b) The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Mo'ed Katan 7b). He then counts seven days (Yemei Sefiro), and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is then completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9). (For a description of the Korbanos that a Metzora brings on the eighth day, see Background to Nazir 39:26c-e.)

17) [line 26] SAMUCH L'MANA - next to the [new clay] bowl [that contains the spring water]
18) [line 26] V'NINKETINHU LA'VERIDIN - and one should hold the blood vessels [between one's fingers so that blood should not flow from them]

19) [line 28] U'MADECHES ES HA'MAYIM - (lit. that washes the water) that overrides the appearance of the water

20) [line 30] LO SAPIK NAFSHACH L'VAR ME'HILCHESA - do not let yourself go beyond the established Halachah; i.e. do not question the established words of the Chachamim

21) [line 31] TZIPOR DEROR - a type of wild bird that is of a standard size such that its blood will be recognizable in a Revi'is of water

22) [line 45] SHE'TEHEI CHIYUSAN BI'KLI - (a) the fresh spring water should be drawn directly in the utensil in which it will be made into Mei Chatas (RASHI); (b) the fresh spring water should be drawn in *a* utensil, not necessarily the one in which it will be made into Mei Chatas (RASH to Parah 9:3 - see Insights to Pesachim 34b)

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