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Sotah 7

SOTAH 7 (2 Teves) - the Dafyomi study for the last day of Chanukah has been dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisroel Zev Gustman Ztz"L (author of "Kuntresei Shiurim") and his wife, Rebbetzin Sarah Gustman (daughter of Hagaon Rav Meir Bassin) on the Rebbetzin's Yahrzeit. Sponsored by Rav A. Feldman, who merited to study under Rav Gustman's tutelage.

The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which will be included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

1) [line 16] L'ASRUYEI - to warn
2) [line 31] "MAYIM GENUVIM YIMTAKU, [V'LECHEM SETARIM YIN'AM.]" - "Stolen waters are sweet, [and bread eaten in secret is pleasant.]" (Mishlei 9:17)

3) [line 37] BEIS DIN HA'GADOL SHEB'YRUSHALAYIM - the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court), known as the Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges. The Lishkas ha'Gazis (The Chamber of Hewn Stone) was partially built in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The Great Sanhedrin was the highest Halachic authority before which the most difficult cases were brought (Devarim 17:8).

4) [line 38] ME'AIMIN - frighten, threaten

When witnesses testified about a capital offence, Beis Din would threaten and frighten them with the following words: "Perhaps you are basing your testimony on deduction or on what you heard from someone else, or perhaps you do not know that we will thoroughly examine your testimony? You should know that testimony in capital cases is different from testimony in monetary cases. In monetary cases, a false witness can pay (if he caused another person to be fined based on his false testimony) and be atoned for his sin. However, in capital cases, the false witness is liable for the blood of the person who was killed and the blood of all his future progeny that he would have had. Also, anyone who kills an individual is liable as if he killed the entire world." (Sanhedrin 4:5).

6) [line 42] SHE'LO YIMACHEH - in order that It (the Holy Name) shall not be erased
7) [line 45] SHOVERES KESUVASAH - she writes a note of cancellation for the debt of her Kesuvah

8a) [line 46] L'SHA'AR HA'MIZRACH - (a) to the eastern gate (TY #9) of the Ezras Nashim courtyard (TY #10) that led from the Ezras Nashim onto Har ha'Bayis (RASHI); (b) According to the Girsa *L'SHA'AR HA'MIZRACH, L'SHA'AR NIKANOR* - to the eastern gate of the Azarah, i.e. Sha'ar Nikanor (TY #18; see next entry) (TOSFOS HA'ROSH to Daf 8a DH v'Ha)

b) [line 47] SHA'AR NIKANOR - (TY #18) the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate (see Yoma 38a). It served as the entrance to the Azarah from the Ezras Nashim courtyard (TY #10). Although all the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'arei Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis (for a more in-depth analysis of the ten designated holy areas around the Beis ha'Mikdash, see RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 7:13-23). The Chachamim arranged this so that the cured Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate. (The purpose was to offer him protection from the sun and the rain, as opposed to making him stand outside, in the Ezras Nashim and stick his head, etc. under the archway of the gate -- Tosfos to Yevamos 7b DH Zeh, citing Rabeinu Tam)

(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9). As such, in order to stand alongside her Korban while it is being offered, she may only enter as far as the archway of Sha'arei Nikanor (see above, entry 8b). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 Torim or 2 Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)

(a) THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields. This ceremony takes place outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash (Nazir 60a).
(b) The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Mo'ed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9).
(c) On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animals Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham.
(d) The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate -- see above, entry #8b). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the archway of the gate.
(e) After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)

11a) [line 50] NIKRE'U - (a) were torn a little; (b) were torn lengthwise; (c) the garment itself was torn
b) [line 50] NIFREMU - (a) were torn into shreds; (b) were torn widthwise;
(c) the stitches of the garment were torn apart (all of the above opinions are found in BARTENURA, TIFERES YISRAEL)


12) [line 1] KATLAYA'OS - (a) ornaments in the shape of a half-circle which are used to close a robe and which encircle the neck on the sides (RASHI); (b) chokers (tight necklaces) that are used to make the neck look fat (BARTENURA)

13) [line 1] NEZAMIM - nose rings or earrings (Ibn Ezra to Bereishis 24:22)
15) [line 2] L'NAVLAH - to make her look disgraceful, repulsive
16) [line 2] CHEVEL MITZRI - (a) a rope made of *Tzorei* Dekel, the fibrous substance just under the surface of the date palm (RASHI); (b) a rope from Mitzrayim (since she acted like the immoral Mitzrim) (BARTENURA, citing the YERUSHALMI)

17) [line 6] "[V'HISHBATI ZIMAH MIN HA'ARETZ;] V'NIVASRU KOL HA'NASHIM, V'LO SA'ASENAH K'ZIMASCHENAH." - "Then I will cause lewdness to cease from the land; and all the women will be chastised, and they will not imitate your lewdness." (Yechezkel 23:48)

18) [line 15] IMDI AL BURYEICH - demonstrate your purity
19) [line 16] SAM YAVESH - a desiccated potion or drug
20) [line 17] BASAR CHAI - living flesh
21) [line 17] MECHALCHEL V'YORED - penetrates and descends

22) [line 22, 27] "ASHER CHACHAMIM YAGIDU; V'LO CHICHADU ME'AVOSAM. LAHEM LEVADAM NITENAH HA'ARETZ; V'LO AVAR ZAR B'SOCHAM." - "Wise men say it, and have not withheld it from their fathers. To them alone was the land given; no stranger passed in between them." (Iyov 15:18-19)

23) [line 34] MEGULGALIN - [detached from each other and] rolling [in his coffin]
24) [line 37] AL EIVAREI L'SHAFA - his bones went back into their places [with the cartilage and various ligaments making his skeleton whole once again]

25) [line 38] V'LO HAVAH KA ME'AILIN LEI LI'MESIVTA D'REKI'A - they would not let him in (lit. bring him up) to the Heavenly Academy

26) [line 39] V'LO HAVAH KA YADA MISHKAL (U'MITRACH) [UL'MITRA] BI'SHEMA'ATA BAHADEI RABANAN - and he did not know how to discuss Torah topics together with the Chachamim

27) [line 46] D'MAFRIT CHATA'EI - who confesses his sins [in public]

28) [line 47] KOSVIN SHOVER
Rebbi Yosi is of the opinion that when part of a debt (or Kesuvah) is paid, the creditor (or wife) writes a receipt. Rebbi Yehudah argues and says that this is impractical because the debtor (or husband) must guard his receipt from mice. Rather, the original bill of debt is torn up and a new bill of debt is written for the remaining sum (Bava Basra 170b).

29) [line 48] AMAR RAVA, B'MAKOM SHE'EIN KOSVIN KESUVAH ASKINAN - the Mishnah is discussing a place in which they normally did not write Kesuvos [but rather relied on the unwritten Tenai Beis Din].

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