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Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Kesuvos 111

KESUVOS 111 - dedicated anonymously in honor of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, and in honor of those who study the Dafyomi around the world.


(a) (Rav Yehudah): Anyone that goes from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael transgresses a Chayavei Aseh - "They were taken to Bavel, and there they will be until I redeem them".
1. R. Zeira explains, that verse refers to the vessels of the Temple.
2. Rav Yehudah: Another verse forbids people to return - "I put an oath upon you, daughters of Yerushalayim, with deer or wild goats".
3. R. Zeira: That oath says that we should not return together, by force.
4. Rav Yehudah: Another verse recounts another oath - that even an individual should not return.
5. R. Zeira learns that verse as R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina.
i. (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): The verses recount 3 oaths Hash-m imposed: Yisrael should not return together, by force; Yisrael should not rebel against the other nations; the nations should not subjugate us too harshly.
6. Rav Yehudah: "If you will awaken, if you will arouse" - this shows, there were more oaths!
7. R. Zeira learns the additional oaths as R. Levi.
i. (R. Levi): The 3 additional oaths forbid us to reveal the time to redemption, to push off the redemption (another version - to demand redemption too strongly), and to reveal the secret (of the calculation of leap years and months, or of the reasons for Mitzvos) to the nations.
(b) (R. Elazar): "With deer or rams" - if we do not keep the oaths, Hash-m will make our flesh prey for others, as flesh of deer or rams.
(c) (R. Elazar): Anyone who lives in Eretz Yisrael dwells without sin - "The neighbors should not say, I struck the inhabitants, they bear sin".
1. (Rava): We learned that the verse refers to those that suffer intestinal sicknesses.
(d) (Rav Anan): Anyone buried in Eretz Yisrael is as if he is buried under the Altar.
1. 1 verse says, "An altar of earth"; another says, "Its earth atones for its people".
(e) Ula frequently came to Eretz Yisrael. He died in Chutz la'Aretz.
1. (R. Elazar - lamenting): "On Tamei ground you will die"!
2. Bearers of the news: His coffin is coming for burial here.
3. (R. Elazar): This does not compare to dying here.
(f) A Yavam asked if he should go to Chutz la'Aretz to do Yibum.
1. R. Chanina: His brother died for marrying a Nochris (i.e. a resident of Chutz la'Aretz) - blessed be Hash-m, who killed him for that - will the Yavam do the same?!
(g) (Rav Yehudah citing Shmuel): Just as it is forbidden to go from Eretz Yisrael to Bavel, it is forbidden to go from Bavel to other lands.
1. (Rabah and Rav Yosef): One may not even go from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi.
2. A man went from Pumbedisa to Bei Kuvi - Rav Yosef excommunicated him.
3. A man went from Pumbedisa to Astonya - he died.
i. (Abaye): Had this Chacham wanted to live, he could have lived (by staying in Pumbadisa).
(h) (Rabah and Rav Yosef): The best of Bavel are absorbed by Eretz Yisrael; the best of other lands are absorbed by Bavel.
(i) Question: To what does this refer?
1. Suggestion: If to lineage - but it was taught, people of other lands are considered to be of doubtful lineage, relative to Eretz Yisrael; Eretz Yisrael has doubtful lineage compared to Bavel!
(j) Answer: Rather, it refers to burial.
(k) (Rav Yehudah): One who dwells in Bavel is as if he dwells
in Eretz Yisrael - "Take refuge in Tziyon, dwellers of Bavel".
(l) (Abaye): We have a tradition that Bavel will not see the birthpangs of Mashiach - this refers to Hutzal of Binyamin.
1. At that time, it will be called "The horn of salvation".
(a) (R. Elazar): The dead in Chutz la'Aretz will not live - "I will put Tzvi (glory) in the land of the living" - only in the land in which is Tzivyoni (my desire), the dead will live.
(b) Question (R. Aba Bar Mamal): "Your dead will live, the corpses of my nation will rise" - "Your dead" are those that die in Eretz Yisrael, "The corpses of my nation" are those that die in Chutz la'Aretz!
1. "I will put Tzvi in the land of the living" - this refers to Nebuchadnetzar, a king as fast as a deer, who was sent to ravage Eretz Yisrael!
(c) Answer (R. Elazar): Another verse supports me - "He gives a soul to the nation on it (Eretz Yisrael) and spirit to those that walk in it".
1. "The corpses of my nation" refers to stillborn babies (of Eretz Yisrael).
(d) R. Aba explains "He gives a soul to the nation on it" as R. Avahu.
1. (R. Avahu): Even a Canaanite slave in Eretz Yisrael is guaranteed a share in the world to come.
2. It says, "He gives a soul l'Am (to the nation) on it"; it also says, "Wait here Im (with) the donkey" - a nation that resembles a donkey.
(e) (R. Yirmiyah Bar Aba): "And spirit to those that walk in it" - anyone that walks 4 Amos in Eretz Yisrael is guaranteed a share in the world to come.
(f) Question: Does R. Elazar really hold that the dead outside of Eretz Yisrael will not live?
(g) Answer (R. Ila): Their bones roll to Eretz Yisrael, and come to life in Eretz Yisrael.
(h) Question (R. Aba Sala Rava): Must Tzadikim really endure such pain?
(i) Answer (Abaye): Underground tunnels are made for Tzadikim.
(j) Question (Karna): Yakov Avinu knew that he was a total Tzadik - if the dead of Chutz la'Aretz live, why did he trouble his children to bury him in Eretz Yisrael?
(k) Answer: He was concerned, perhaps he will not merit having tunnels.
1. Question (R. Chanina): Yosef knew that he was a total Tzadik - if the dead of Chutz la'Aretz live, why did he trouble his brothers to carry him 400 Parsa to bury him in Eretz Yisrael?
(l) Rabah's brothers sent Karna's teaching to Rabah, to try to persuade him to come to Eretz Yisrael.
1. Ilfa added: There was a case of a man that was pained by his great desire for a woman that lived in Chutz la'Aretz. He was about to go; when he heard Karna's teaching, he held himself back, and stayed in Eretz Yisrael the rest of his life.
2. Even though you (Rabah) are great, one who learns from a Rav is incomparably better.
i. Don't say, you do not have a Rav here - you have, R. Yochanan!
3. If you will not come, beware of 3 things:
i. Do not sit to much, since this causes Tachtoniyos;
ii. Do not stand too much, since this is bad for the heart;
iii. Do not walk too much, since this is bad for the eyes.
4. Rather, one should sit 1/3, stand 1/3, and walk 1/3.
(m) It is better to stand than to sit unsupported.
(n) Question: But he said, standing is bad for the heart!
(o) Answer: Rather, it is better to stand with support than to sit unsupported.

(p) (Yitzchak, Shimon and Oshiya): The law is as R. Yehudah regarding mules.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): A mule that desires to mate - we may not mate it with a horse or donkey, only with a mule as itself.
(q) (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): Yitzchak (above) is R. Yitzchak Nafcha; Shimon is R. Shimon Ben Pazi; (others say, R. Shimon Ben Lakish); Oshiya is R. Oshiya b'Rebbi.
(a) (R. Elazar): Ignoramuses will not be revived - "The dead will not live".
1. Support (Beraisa): "The dead will not live" - one might think, this applies to all - "Refa'im will not rise", the verse only speaks of those that Rifu (slackened) from Torah.
(b) (R. Yochanan): No - the verse refers to those that served idolatry.
(c) (R. Elazar): But it says, "The dew of lights is your (Hash-m's) dew, and you will cause Refa'im to fall to the ground" - the light of Torah only revives those that use the light of Torah.
1. R. Elazar saw that R. Yochanan was pained; he comforted him: "You that cling to Hash-m are all alive today".
2. Rhetorical question: Is it really possible to cling to Hash-m - "Hash-m is a consuming fire"!
3. Answer: Rather, one who marries his daughter to a Chacham, does business for and benefits Chachamim from his property, the Torah considers him to cling to the Divine presence.
(d) Rhetorical question: "You will love Hash-m and cling to him" - is it really possible to cling to Hash-m?
(e) Answer: Rather, one who marries his daughter to a Chacham, does business for and benefits Chachamim from his property, the Torah considers him to cling to the Divine presence.
(f) (R. Chiya Bar Rav Yosef): In the future, Tzadikim will rise from the ground in Yerushalayim - "They will sprout from the city as herbs".
1. "The city" is Yerushalayim - "I will protect this city".
(g) (R. Chiya Bar Rav Yosef): A Kal v'Chomer teaches that Tzadikim will return to life clothed.
1. Wheat is planted bare, and it rises with many covers - Tzadikim, that are buried clothed, all the more so they will rise clothed!
(h) (R. Chiya Bar Rav Yosef): In the future, cakes and silk garments will grow in Eretz Yisrael - "There will be Pisas (enlarged - the word also suggests hand-sized, or silk).
(i) (Beraisa): "There will be Pisas grain in the land, on the mountain tops" - in the future, wheat will grow as palm trees on the mountain tops.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it will be hard to harvest.
2. Rejection: "Its fruit will rustle as (trees of) Levanon" - Hash-m will bring a wind from his storehouse, causing the produce to fall; a person will take a handful from the field to feed his household.
(j) "With choice Kelayos of wheat" - in the future, wheat will be as big as the 2 kidneys of a large ox.
1. Do not be surprised at this - a fox nested in a turnip; the remains of the turnip weighed 60 Liters.
(k) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): In Sichin, a man inherited 3 branches of mustard. One split open; it contained 9 Kabim of mustard, and the wood covered a potter's shack.
(l) (R. Shimon Ben Tachlifa): My father left us a head of cabbage; we used a ladder to climb onto it.
(m) "The blood of the grape, you will drink wine" - the world to come will be unlike this world.
1. In this world, it is a toil to harvest and press grapes; in the world to come, a man will bring a grape in a wagon or boat, put it in a corner of his house, and it will supply him as a fattened ox;
2. The vine branch will be used as fuel for cooking.
3. Each grape will contain 30 Sa'im of wine - "The blood of the grape, you will drink Chemar" - the word can be read Chomer (30 Sa'im).
(n) (Rav Dimi): "He will tie his foal to the vine" - every vine in Eretz Yisrael will require a foal to harvest it.
(o) "And his donkey's children to the Serekah (vine branch)" - every Serak (barren tree) will produce what 2 donkeys can bear.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps there will be no moisture in it?
2. Rejection: "He will wash his garment in wine".
3. Suggestion: Perhaps it will not be red?
4. Rejection: "The blood of the grape ..."
5. Suggestion: Perhaps it will not intoxicate?
6. Rejection: "Susah" (a language of enticing).
7. Suggestion: Perhaps it will have no taste?
8. Rejection: "Hachlili (red) eyed from wine" - any palate that tastes it will say "Li Li (to me, to me)".
9. Suggestion: Perhaps it is good for youths only?
10. Rejection: "u'Leven Shinayim" - this may be read "u'Leven Shanim" (a man of years).
(p) Question: What is the simple meaning of the verse?
(q) Answer (Rav Dimi): The congregation of Yisrael asks Hash-m, 'Hint with your eyes that are sweeter than wine, and show me your teeth, that are better than milk'.
1. This supports R. Yochanan.
2. (R. Yochanan): One who whitens his teeth (smiles) at his friend is better than one who gives him milk - we read the verse, "Libun (whitening) teeth (is better than) milk".
(r) R. Chiya Bar Ada was the teacher of Reish Lakish's children; for 3 days, he did not come.
1. Reish Lakish: Why didn't you come?
2. R. Chiya Bar Ada: My father left me a vineyard on poles. The 1st day I harvested 300 clusters, each produced a Se'ah; the 2nd day I harvested 300 clusters, each produced 1/2 Se'ah. The 3rd day I harvested 300 clusters, each produced 1/3 Se'ah - and I declared the majority of the vineyard ownerless!
3. Reish Lakish: Had you not neglected your job, it would have produced more.
(s) Rami Bar Yechezkel went to Bene Berak; he saw goats eating under fig trees. Honey was dripping from the figs, and milk from the goats, and they mixed - this is "Flowing with milk and honey".
(t) (R. Yakov Ben Dostoy): It is 3 Mil (1 Mil is about a kilometer) from Lud to Ono; I once went before dawn, and I was up to my ankles in date honey.
(u) (Reish Lakish): I saw the (region flowing with) milk and honey of Tzipori - it was 16 Mil by 16 Mil.
(v) (Rabah Bar Bar Chanah): I saw the milk and honey of all of Eretz Yisrael - it was 88 Mil by 24 Mil.
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