ARAM SOBA FOUNDATION NEWSLETTERBack to this week's Parsha | Previous Issues
The scholars of Kabbalah and “derush” (homiletic interpretation of the Torah) often employ the system of “notrikon” (viewing Hebrew words as acrostics). Already the Gemara (Shabbat 105a) demonstrated that the Torah itself employed this system. This Shabbat we will hear the reading of Parashat Zachor, a Biblical obligation, and we are called upon to know and understand the meaning of this parashah. What is the essence of Amalek, and why is there an obligation upon us to destroy them, such that they have no right of survival? Why are we enjoined to remember and never forget? Why must the rejection of their ways accompany us at all times? One of the great sages employed the “notrikon” system in this context, thus shedding light on our issue. He understood the word Amalek as standing for, “al menat lekabel” - “in order to receive.” Let us take a closer look at this idea and extract the relevant lessons.
The soul contains seventy “powers,” corresponding to the seventy nations of the world. Each nation is singled out by its unique nature and character. The Pelishtim were frivolous, the Persians were covetous, Esav lived by the sword, and Yishmael was wild and aggressive. In truth, all seventy qualities loom inside each and every individual and nation. However, in each person one quality in particular outshines the rest and defines the individual. Likewise, in each nation a unique characteristic stands out and comes to define the nation as a whole.
Are these qualities good or bad? This is not really a legitimate question, as all qualities are but a receptacle of sorts that may be filled with either good or bad; each characteristic may be put to use for either the positive or negative. No quality is never overrode at times, when the time and particular situation call for doing so. Perhaps we may cite in this context the passage in the Midrash (Beresheet Rabbah 63:8) regarding Esav, who is called “Admoni,” literally translated as “red” but also related - for obvious reasons - to the Hebrew word “dam,” blood, a reference to an inclination for bloodshed: “When Shemuel saw that David was ‘admoni,’ he was frightened and said, this one, too, is a murderer like Esav?! The Al-mighty said to him, David is ‘admoni with nice eyes’ (Shemuel I 17).” “Eyes” in this context alludes to the Sanhedrin (“the eyes of the nation”). Meaning, “Esav kills of his own accord; David kills by the decision of the Sanhedrin.”
Generally speaking, the test to determine the propriety of a given quality or act is to check for what purpose it is directed, for whose benefit and what goal. If a teacher expresses anger out of impatience, then we apply to him Hazal’s comment, “A short-tempered person cannot teach.” If, however, he intends for the benefit of the students to urge them on, then we apply to him the passage, “Conduct your leadership like the heights, and scold the students” (Ketubot 103b). One who feeds hungry people could be someone like Avraham Avinu or a simple restaurant owner. It all depends on one’s intention: for himself or for others.
Once again, generally speaking the Al-mighty testifies about the nations that “All that you have done you did for your own benefit” (Avodah Zarah 2b). They take advantage of their qualities and powers for selfish causes; they goal is purely their own benefit. Am Yisrael differs fundamentally in this regard. Avraham Avinu, the father of the nation, stamped the nation with the characteristic of “gemilut hessed,” kindness, welcoming guests, helping the community, establishing faith and educating the next generation. Lighting the path before this nation is the principle, “A person is not created for his own self, but rather to help others in every way” (introduction to “Nefesh Hahayyim”), including both physical and spiritual needs. Service of the Creator, too, must be performed for its own sake; we are bidden not to perform as a servant who works strictly for payment. We must steer from selfishness, from the desire to receive, to devour and control, the desire that constitutes the manifestation of Gehinnom, which opens its doors to receive, always crying, “Give, give!” (Avodah Zarah 17a).
Although every nation features one specific, defining characteristic channeled towards the attainment of personal gratification, that quality can and must ultimately bring that nation to sanctity. This is accomplished by the souls of the converts from each nation (see Pesahim 87b). We are told, however, that “the Al-mighty swore that if [prospective] converts come from any nation in the world we should accept them; but from the descendants of Amalek we should never accept” (Pesikta D’Rav Kahana 3:16). The reason is that Amalek has but one defining characteristic, and that is selfishness. As stated, “Amalek” stands for, “al menat lekabel” - “in order to receive.” This quality simply cannot accommodate the reality of Am Yisrael, the nation of kindness and love for others, the nation of serving the Creator for its own sake, of worshipping Him sincerely and wholeheartedly.
During the days of Mordechai and Esther, when Benei Yisrael partook of the wicked king’s feast (Megillah 12a), they enjoyed themselves for the pure sake of enjoyment itself. Their participation involved no kindness, no service of Hashem neither in the realm of “between man and G-d” nor in that of “between man and his fellow” (“ben adam laMakom”; “ben adam lahavero”). They therefore fell prey to Amalek, to the charges of Haman, for this is his defining quality. When they sincerely repented, accepting upon themselves the performance of misvot for their own sake and with love (see Shabbat 88a), including love for other people through sending gifts and giving charity to the poor, they overcame the force of Amalek and overpowered the prosecution. At that point, Haman met his downfall.
This we are instructed to remember and never forget, to eradicate Amalek and their memory. This entails, first and foremost, care and concern for others and proactive involvement in helping the community. Thus will we merit victory over Amalek.
WHY WE DRESS UP ?
For good reason, Purim is the festival of the costume. The customs of Am Yisrael are considered Torah, containing profound depth and meaning. Haman the Aggagite prosecuted against the Jews, and his prosecution found its echo in the heavens above. “The King,” the King of the universe, removed, as it were, His ring and transferred it to Haman, authorizing him to sign a royal decree to destroy, Heaven forbid, all the Jews, young and old alike. Why? Because, as Haman tells Ahashverosh, “Yeshno am ehad” - “there is one nation.” The word “yeshno” (literally, “there is”) may also be read as “yashnu,” meaning, “they slept.” Benei Yisrael were “asleep” in misvah observance; they abandoned the Torah, partook of the gentiles’ festivities and even prostrated themselves before a graven image, Heaven forbid. The decree was issued, the “King” and Haman sat to drink, and the city of Shushan was in havoc.
This was followed by trauma and panic - fasting, weeping and eulogy, sincere repentance from the bottom of the heart. “The Jews observed and accepted” to fulfill the dictates of the Torah, they accepted the authority of Mordechai and the yoke of Torah and misvot in every sense of the term. Then came the climactic reversal of fortune: Mordechai came before “the King” in royal garb. The decree was annulled, the nation was saved, and Haman was overthrown. What happened here? It turned out that the prosecution was false, that the Jews, at their very core, are essentially good, believers and children of believers. They were only temporarily disguised as secular, appearing to break free from the burden of Torah. But when the day of truth arrived, they pulled away the costume and their true essence expressed itself; their inner character was once and for all exposed. They are truly the nation of Hashem, a nation loyal to the Torah and its commandments, Hashem’s treasured nation. So will this be ascertained, speedily and in our days, with the unfolding of the ultimate redemption!
a continuing saga - Part one
taken from the Haggadah, “Avotenu Sipperu Lanu”
“The rabbis taught: At a time when Yisrael experiences calamity and one of them separates himself, two administering angels come to accompany him and place their hands on his head and say, ‘So-and-so who separated himself from the community will not behold the community’s consolation.” (Ta’anit 11a)
Along these same lines we say in the Haggadah about the wicked son, who detached himself from the rest of the nation, that “were he to have been there, he would not have been redeemed,” for whoever separates himself from the community does not behold their consolation. Rabbi Yossef Mesas zs”l, the rabbi of Telmasan, once hosted in his house two fund-raisers from Eress Yisrael, who told him the following remarkable story: .
Around seven hundred years ago, a plague broke out in the city of Barcelona, Spain. This occurred a short time after the passing of the Rashba zs”l (who died in the year 5065). So long as he lived, his great merit protected the city and its inhabitants; but once he passed away, the plague broke out. Many of the city’s leaders and prominent residents fell prey to the devastating plague, and others followed the instruction of Hazal, “A person should not remain in a place of danger,” and fled the city. There remained only a small, impoverished population and one well-respected man named Yaakov Philo. He had earned a reputation of exceptional warmth and enormous wealth, who was well connected to the authorities and highly influential.
During this time, a certain Jewish butcher converted from the faith and within two years was appointed as a priest and called Martin. He saw the gentiles’ ignorance and impassioned hatred toward the Jews, and decided to further the cause of hatred and ride the waves of incitement. He would spew fire and brimstone with his sermons about the Jews, their lifestyle, religion and leaders, and spread false rumors about their hatred towards the gentiles and evil plans to harm them. The enmity he generated and ignited was bound to explode at any moment in the form of inflamed riots and bloodshed. The remnants of the glorious Jewish community lifted their eyes to Yaakov Philo, who was well connected with the authorities, to intervene on their behalf and have the religious leaders restrain the dangerous preacher and thereby calm the masses. But the wealthy man thought to himself, why should I get myself involved in this crisis? I may trigger the wrath of the king and his officers, as well as the resentment of the priests and masses. I could be thrown into prison and have all my property confiscated! As a wise man who foresees the future, he understood that the ongoing, relentless incitement campaign spelled deadly riots. He thus decided to save himself and his possessions.
He spread rumors that his business had come upon difficult times and he must pay giant sums of money to many debtors. He therefore offered his fields, vineyards, holdings and properties for sale with cash only. He likewise went on frequent trips to the cemetery under the pretense of visiting the grave of his grandfather who was buried in a desolate, forgotten plot of land near the cemetery to beg for mercy for his collapsing business. There, in the cemetery, next to his grandfather’s grave, he secretly dug a pit where he hid the moneys he had received in exchange for his properties. This way he would be able to take all his money with him without any trouble from the government or rioters. Being as orderly and organized as he was, he diligently recorded in his ledger every amount that he hid. When the priest’s incitement intensified and the environment approached the boiling point, Yaakov decided that he could wait no longer. He gathered all his remaining money and visited one last time his grandfather’s grave. He hid the final sum of money and that night he fled the city with his wife, son and daughter. He crossed the border to Portugal, sold several precious stones he had taken with him, and opened a small business that would support him until - and if - he could return to his hometown and retrieve his buried treasure.
He did not realize, however, that as he left his grandfather’s grave, his ledger, in which he meticulously recorded the buried sums of money, fell from his pocket.
to be continued
Rav Yosef Sa'id
Around one hundred and fifty years ago, Rabbi Yaakov Sapir z”l was sent to India to collect money for the rebuilding of the ruined synagogue of Rabbi Yehudah Hahasid in Yerushalayim. His journeys took him to Yemen, and in his memoirs entitled “Even Sapir” he writes about the great rabbi he met there, Mari Yosef Ben Sa’id: “He was full of Torah, fear, wisdom and the spirit of knowledge, remarkably proficient in the Tanach and its commentaries. He was an expert in Talmud and the Rambam, through the works of the Aharonim, like one of the great teachers in our lands. He was highly accomplished in the wisdom of Kabbalah with great acumen. The Zohar and the writings of the Arizal were clearly commonplace on his tongue - each and every page. His power of recall was incredible. He penned works on Kabbalah and performed wonders with practical Kabbalah. He had knowledge also in powers and medicine, as well as amulets and lotteries, to the point where the gentiles would come for his advice and seek from him cures, remedies and lotteries. His reputation spread throughout the land and was great even in the eyes of the officers and king’s servants. But even all this was surpassed by his humility and love for other people, exhibited by his pleasant countenance. His speech was pleasant and words of Torah and wisdom were blended into everything he said. He was around forty years of age.”
It is told that in the center of the marketplace in his town stood a large tree, under which the merchants would spread their merchandise in order to enjoy the shade. Once a Jewish salesman came and spread out his goods under the tree. A Moslem trader came along and ordered the Jew to leave and give him the space. The Jew refused, but the gentile punched him in the jaw and drove him from the area by force.
The merchant went weeping and met Rabbi Shalom Tanami zs”l, the rabbi of Mussmar, walking together with the local rabbi, Rabbi Yossef Sa’id. Rabbi Shalom inquired as to the reason for his weeping and the man told the two sages how his place under the tree was taken from him. Rabbi Shalom said, “Remove the worry from your heart - the local rabbi is with us, and his net is spread over everything that occurs in the city.”
Soon thereafter a giant snake came into the marketplace and crawled among the stands and merchandise. Everyone around stared at it in frozen terror, as if they had been paralyzed. It wrapped itself around that Arab’s neck and strangled him to death!
The Eagle in a Struggle For Survival
Until the early twentieth century, Israel was a paradise for eagles, and researchers figure that thousands of them lived on our shores. Remarkably, today we have reached a situation of a dwindling population in worrisome proportions. What happened to the king of the birds? There are those who hunt down the eagle in order to stuff their skins or as a result of the attribution of medicinal qualities to this bird. Additionally, some people began collecting young birds from the nests. With the development of modern agriculture and the settlement of large areas in Israel, the number of wandering herds of sheep and cattle diminished, drastically raising the country’s veterinarian level. As a result, the sources of food for eagles, who live on prey, dwindled. As if this is not reason enough, the use of poison against other animals caused the death of large numbers of eagles who would come as a group to partake of a poisoned corpse. Another important factor that affected eagles was the damage done to their homes, the places where young eagles are raised. Natural habitats, particularly in the northern section of the country, have been destroyed as a result of housing construction and agricultural development. Add to this the low-altitude flights of planes and helicopters near nesting grounds, as well as the growing numbers of tourists in the wandering areas, who are not careful to avoid disturbing the birds. All these factors have done their part in diminishing Israel’s eagle population. Even here, the eagles’ troubles don’t end. They have encountered yet another problem that was unknown to their predecessors: as a result of electrification, eagles have died through contact with high-voltage wires and the like.
The descriptions of the various factors threatening the life of the eagle may lead one to think, poor creature - all the troubles it suffers! This sight of a poor, troubled creature does not pass over the world of humans, “lehavdil.” Hazal teach us that “the wisdom of the unfortunate is despised.” Who is considered “unfortunate”? In truth, nobody can decide who is unfortunate; everyone defines the term based on his own standards. One person may apply the term to whoever does not own a new automobile, others to one who is not a great rabbi. When all is said and done, however, only a person may himself decide whether or not he is unfortunate. Should he decide that such is the case, he will exhibit signs of misfortune, and everyone will see him as such and treat his wisdom accordingly. My dear Jews, Am Yisrael has suffered throughout its history from the aggression of several nations. They pursued us, confiscated our property, trampled on our honor - we have experienced so many troubles. Yet, Am Yisrael never considered itself unfortunate. For this reason, the other nations of the world also did not see us as such. They instead came to warm themselves by the nation’s light. This feeling of being fortunate evolves from the awareness that we have a great Father in the heavens who loves us, cares for us, and wishes for our well-being - and in Him we trust.
“The poles shall remain in the rings of the aron: they shall not be removed from it”
Rashi clarifies that the poles were to remain in the aron forever, and the Gemara (Masechet Yoma 72) teaches us that one who removes the poles is punished with lashes. This prohibition constitutes one of the 613 commandments of the Torah (misvah 86). Our sages have offered different explanations for this misvah, each of which presents us with an important lesson. The Ba’alei HaTosafot explain that out of a sense of awe and reverence for the sanctity of the aron, its bearers would not stay even an extra moment in order to remove the poles therefrom. They would rather retreat immediately upon placing the aron. As we know, the Gemara (Yoma 72b) draws a parallel between Torah scholars and the aron, and elsewhere (Berachot 8b) they are likened to the luhot (tablets). In particular, one must display reverence for his own rabbi as he would to Hashem (Avot 4:12). From here we may learn about the level of respect we must have for our rabbis!
“The poles shall remain in the rings of the aron: they shall not be removed from it”
The Alshich Hakadosh explains that Torah scholars are likened to the aron, which contains the luhot and Torah scroll, and the poles used for carrying the aron allude to the laymen who support Torah and its scholars. The Torah here instructs that the poles must always remain attached to the aron. Meaning, laymen cannot feel content by assisting the Torah world when the need arises while they themselves live lives detached from Torah. “They shall not be removed from it.” There must be a strong connection between the Torah leaders and their flock, and the masses must constantly live under the influence of the spiritual giants.
The “Seror Hamor” zs”l also explained the poles as symbolic of supporters of Torah. He writes that this misvah teaches us that through their support they are attached to the aron: they receive a portion of the reward for their learning, and they are considered full participants in the merits of their study.
“The poles shall remain in the rings of the aron: they shall not be removed from it”
Rabbenu Yossef Nehemias zs”l explains “they shall not be removed from it” to mean that the supporters of Torah will never be removed from its scholars; they will earn the merit of basking in their glow also in the World to Come. This is what is meant by the pasuk in Kohellet (7:12), “To be in the shadow of wisdom is to be in the shadow of money.” Meaning, one who supports students of Torah earns a seat in the heavenly yeshivah, as stated in the Gemara (Pesahim 53b).
The Hid”a zs”l cites a question posed by his father zs”l: how will this be beneficiary for the Torah supporters, who will not understand what the scholars will be saying in the heavenly yeshivah? They will embarrass themselves in front of the sages! He found in the Midrash (Yalkut Reuveni, Parashat Re’eh) that in the future the supporters of Torah study will be taught, such that they can be properly assimilated into the heavenly yeshivah!
In a newly published Haggadah, “Ma’aseh Rav,” which contains hundreds of inspiring stories of the great giants of recent generations, a story appears about one philanthropist who generously supported the famed yeshivah of Volozhin. He asked the founder and Rosh Yeshivah, the great Rav Hayyim of Volozhin zs”l, to learn mishnayot on his soul’s behalf after he departs from the world.
Some time later, the donor reached old age and eventually passed on. The Rosh Yeshivah faithfully fulfilled his promise to study mishnayot. He came upon a certain mishnah that he studied in depth, analyzing it according to all the various interpretations, and encountered great difficulty understanding it according to one view. He wore himself out in thought and eventually fell asleep. The donor came to him in a dream and clarified the issue for the great scholar. He established a novel approach for understanding the topic, and his words will delightful and illuminating for the sage!
The Rosh Yeshivah opened his eyes and said with great enthusiasm, “I have always known that in the upper worlds Torah supporters are taught; but I never imagined that in such a short period of time they can attain such a high level!”
A letter of encouragemant from Rabbi Aryeh Deri
Dear Brothers -
There is none like our G-d, the merciful King, who forgives and atones our sins. We are bidden to follow His ways: just as He is gracious and compassionate, so must we conduct ourselves with these qualities. Our nation is founded on the cornerstones of kindness and generosity. And even should someone wrong us, we are commanded not to avenge or bear a grudge, to forget and overlook the crime. (Perhaps we should mention here that the sacred Hafess Hayyim zs”l writes in the introduction to his work as well as in “Ahavat Hessed” 4:5 that it emerges from the writings of the Rishonim that these prohibitions against revenge and holding a grudge applies as well to even harboring such sentiments, without any verbal or active expression. One must eradicate the matter entirely from his consciousness. As we are told, whoever foregoes on that owed to him is himself forgiven for his sins. According to the Sefer Hahinuch, one should eliminate from his heart even feelings of animosity resulting from physical or emotional injury. I hereby forgive everyone who angered or provoked me, whoever did me wrong. I cannot, however, forgive for the pain caused to my family and children.) Even the Egyptians, who tortured us through backbreaking labor and drowned our newborns in the river, we are commanded not to despise (Devarim 26:8). The Al-mighty knows from the outset all that the nations will do to us, and yet He commanded in His Torah that we may not despite an Edomi (the descendants of Esav - ibid.). Rashi explains that we are forbidden from doing so “despite your having good reason to despise him, for his having come at you with the sword.” Why? “For he is your brother.” The nation of Edom has the merit of their forefathers on their side, as they descend from the sacred family (Rabbenu Behayei): they are the children of Esav, the son of Yis’hak and grandson of Avraham.
The nation of Amalek marks an exception to this rule. We are commanded to remember and never forget their unprovoked offensive, and even to eradicate their memory from under the heavens. This despite the fact that Amalek descends from Esav (Beresheet 36). Why doesn’t their ancestral merit warrant that we must not despise them, that we forgive their crime against us?
The answer emerges from Rashi’s comments to the section of “Zachor.” He explains that before Amalek’s attack, the nations of the world were frightened from Am Yisrael and were afraid to launch any campaign against them. Like a boiling pool of water, nobody would dare jump in until Amalek came along and did just that. They themselves were badly burned, but they cooled off the pool for everyone else.
There is no forgiveness for one who breaks a barrier, for all the ramifications and results of his action hold him personally accountable; they are all listed as his crimes. The Gemara says that the “lighter sins” committed by Ahav were the “serious sins” committed by Yeravam Ben Nevat. If so, then why does the Tanach in several places refer to Yeravam as the prototype of iniquity, rather than Ahav? The answer is that Yeravam was the first; he set the example (Sanhedrin 102b). He breached the fence, and the entire process of deterioration through the exile of the ten tribes and destruction of the Bet Hamikdash is attributed to him!
The one who founded the secularist enlightenment movement was himself misvah observant. He even composed a commentary on the Torah. Already his son converted out of the faith, but it is awful to think for how much he is since held accountable, how many sins, how much assimilation and heresy! He never imagined all this, but he was the one who breached the fence. A political leader coined the expression, “secular revolution” as a means to distract public attention from his widespread failures. Who knows if the seeds of disaster were not then sown for which he will be held accountable! For breaking the barrier - there is no forgiveness!
However, instead of looking elsewhere and judging others, it is far preferable to look inside and internalize this concept. If the congregation maintains decorum during tefilah and Torah reading, then what is the sentence for one who breaches the fence and begins talking? If proper standards of dress and conduct are maintained, or strict adherence to halachot and customs, how much care must one take not to initiate a breach and set an example of deviance!
Shabbat Shalom Aryeh Deri
A Series of Halachot
On the Shabbat immediately preceding Purim, we take from the aron two Torah scrolls. In the first we read the weekly parashah, while in the second we read as “maftir” the section of “Zachor” until the words, “lo tishkah” (Debarim 25:17-19). If Purim falls on Erev Shabbat, such that Shushan Purim (the fifteenth of Adar) falls on Shabbat, Parashat Zachor is read on the previous Shabbat, before Purim.
According to the Rishonim and Shulhan Aruch, the recitation of Parashat Zachor constitutes a Biblical requirement. Some Rishonim add that from the Gemara it is clear that the requirement of a proper Sefer Torah for this reading is likewise a Biblical one; one cannot fulfill this misvah by recalling Amalek’s attack either mentally or even verbally. It is therefore proper to use the highest quality Sefer Torah available for the reading of Parashat Zachor. Furthermore, the one reading the Torah must do so meticulously, ensuring to pronounce the words correctly and use the proper notes. (The same applies to the reading of Parashat Parah, as it, too, constitutes a Biblical requirement according to some Rishonim.)
It is proper for the one reading the Torah to remind the audience before the reading of “Zachor” to have in mind to fulfill the obligation of the Torah of recalling the incident of Amalek and the requirement to eradicate them. The reader himself should have in mind to fulfill the obligation on behalf of the congregation through his reading, since misvot require proper intention.
As an added measure of piety, one should recite the “leshem yihud” paragraph before the one receiving this aliyah recites the berachah. This recitation is not, however, strictly required by halachah.
The congregation mustn’t read along with the reader from their Humashim, whereas a Humash is not suitable for the reading of Parashat Zachor, since it is not written according to the requirements of a proper Sefer Torah. They should rather listen silently and attentively to the reading of Parashat Zachor from the reader. (The same applies to the reading of Parashat Parah.)
Adults should warn children not to bang with their feet upon hearing the name of “Amalek,” as this may interfere with the congregation’s ability to listen properly to the reading of the parashah from the Torah.
Some authorities maintain that the reading of Parashat Zachor requires the attendance of a minyan. Therefore, those who live in small, faraway villages and towns must spend Shabbat Zachor in a place with a minyan in order to read/hear Parashat Zachor in the presence of a minyan. If a minyan is not present, than the reading should be conducted from a Sefer Torah only without the berachot before or after the reading.
One who cannot be in the Bet Kenesset for the reading of Parashat Zachor should have in mind to fulfill the obligation when Parashat Ki-Tesse, which concludes with Parashat Zachor, is read in the Bet Kenesset. Before the reading he should ask the reader to have in mind to fulfill the obligation on behalf of the listener, who must himself likewise have in mind to fulfill his requirement. (Nevertheless, it is proper for him to also read Parashat Zachor from a Humash on Shabbat Zachor.)
Similarly, if some time after Shabbat Zachor a mistake was found in the Sefer Torah used for this reading, the congregation who relied upon that reading for the fulfillment of their obligation should have in mind to satisfy the requirement when Parashat Ki-Tesse is read. They do not fulfill their obligation through the reading of the Torah’s account of Amalek’s attack in Parashat Beshalah (“Vayavo Amalek”) read on Purim day.
If a Sefaradi or one of eastern descent generally prays in a Bet Kenesset of Ashkenazim, it is far preferable for him to try to hear the reading of Parashat Zachor from a reader who reads with the accent, pronunciation and notes of the Sefaradim. The same applies in the reverse scenario. Nevertheless, if one heard the reading in an accent other than his own, he has still fulfilled his obligation.
Shlomo Ben Liza
Produced by Cong. Bnai Yosef and the Aram Soba Foundation - translated from Ma'ayan Hashavua in Israel
Tuesday night in Bnai Yosef - 8:30pm. Saturday night in Bnai Yosef 10:00pm
Bnei Aram Soba 1616 Ocean Parkway Brooklyn, NY 11223.
Make sure to include the address and name you wish it to be mailed to. Make checks payable to Bnei Aram Soba. For information contact 718-998-4557 between 9:30am-4:00am daily.
This article is provided as part of Shema Yisrael Torah Network
Permission is granted to redistribute electronically or on paper,
provided that this notice is included intact.
For information on subscriptions, archives, and
other Shema Yisrael
Classes, send mail to email@example.com