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A Summary of the Shiur Delivered on Mossa'ei Shabbat by Rav Ovadia Yossef shlit"a
The Halachot of Sefirat Ha'omer
(The shiur was delivered in 5761)
The Midrash relates that upon hearing that they will stand before Hashem at Har Sinai to receive the Torah, Benei Yisrael counted down the days in enthusiastic anticipation. In commemoration, there is a misvah to count every day from Pesah to Shabuot. Nowadays, however, when we do not offer the omer sacrifice on the sixteenth of Nissan, our counting merely commemorates the counting that was conducted during the times of the Mikdash and is a rabbinic, rather than Biblical, obligation.
One must recite the berachah before counting. Nevertheless, one who counts without a berachah has fulfilled his obligation. Therefore, if one is asked one evening after sunset as to the number day of the counting, he should reply with the previous day's count. For if he mentions that evening's count, he will fulfill his obligation and will thus be unable to count with a berachah. It is therefore proper when asking to inquire as to the previous day's count, so that the one questioned will remember not to mention that evening's count.
The time for counting is in the evening, and one should preferably wait until after nightfall. Strictly speaking, however, if the congregation concluded Arbit before nightfall (but after sunset), and if the worshippers leave without counting they will likely forget to count later at home, they may count with a berachah even before nightfall.
There is a beautiful custom among many communities to study Pirkei Avot and hear words of mussar between minhah and Arbit during the sefirah period. Indeed, the words of our sages in Pirkei Avot are like fiery coals. This study continues until nightfall in order to ensure that the counting of the omer takes place in its proper time - after nightfall.
The custom is to count sefirah after "alenu." The widespread practice is that the hazzan first counts out loud and then the congregation counts after him. This helps ensure that the congregants will not err in their counting, as they will first hear the correct counting from the hazzan.
One must recite sefirat ha'omer standing, unless one is elderly or sick. Other people who count the omer while seated have nevertheless fulfilled their obligation.
Everyone must count the omer, but one may also fulfill the obligation by hearing the berachah and the counting from another, so long as both the listener and the one reciting have in mind for the counting to fulfill the listener's obligation. Nevertheless, one should preferably count by himself.
One who misses one night of counting can no longer count sefirat ha'omer with a berachah. It is therefore of particular importance to participate in minyanim for Arbit during the sefirah period, to help prevent forgetting.
This applies only to one who went a full night and a day without counting. If one forget at night but remembered the following day, he counts during the day without a berachah and may then continue counting that night and onward with a berachah. It is proper to count the omer every morning in the Bet Kenesset for the benefit of those who forgot to count the previous night.
If during "ben hashemashot" (the period between sundown and nightfall) one remembers that he had not counted the previous night or that day, he should immediately count without a berachah and then, after nightfall, count the new counting with a berachah. From that day on, he must be extra careful to count only after nightfall, and not before.
One who accepted Shabbat early, before sundown, on Friday afternoon and remembered that he had not counted the omer the previous night or that day, recites that day's counting without a berachah and may then continue counting with a berachah. The authorities debate whether one who counted only the days, without mentioning the weeks, has fulfilled his obligation. The halachah follows the view that he has fulfilled his obligation and may therefore continue counting with a berachah. One must understand his counting, for otherwise he is not considered as having actually counted the number of days. Therefore, one who does not understand Hebrew must count the omer in a language he understands.
Women are exempt from the misvah of sefirat ha'omer, but they may count without a berachah.
Three Pieces of Advice (5)
Flashback: A man saved ninety rubles to repay his debts and marry off his daughters. As he made his way back home from his money-making trip, he stopped off in Berditchev to receive the blessing of the sadik, Rav Levi Yis’hak, who needed a large sum of money for the ransom of Jewish captives. The sadik offered him three pieces of advice in exchange for thirty rubles each. The man, however, was very disappointed to hear the advice. The first was to always choose the righthand path; the second, that an older man who marries a young woman brings trouble upon himself; third, do not believe unsubstantiated rumors. For these three suggestions he surrendered all his money! Penniless, he walked through the forest towards his home. Along the way he was asked as to which direction a gang of thieves turned, and he replied that they headed towards the right. His response led to their capture, and he was rewarded with sixty rubles. He arrived at an inn as night began to fall but learned that a wealthy man, who had just married a young girl, rented out all the rooms. He had no choice but to sleep in the entrance.
The door to the inn opened. Two men left the well-lit lobby into the darkness. The pouring rain forced them to find shelter in the entranceway, where they noticed the figure of a man crouched at their feet.
"A drunkard found refuge here," one of them scornfully murmured.
"We can't talk here," his comrade replied. "He might hear our plan and turn us in!"
"He won't here a thing, because we aren't going to say a thing! We have already spoken enough; the time has come for action. Here, in this remote inn along the road, is the perfect place. Nobody will inquire, no one will have any suspicions. We need only to set the time."
"Tonight, at midnight, when the clock strikes twelve."
"Agreed," responded the other. "We must ensure that we are not seen together until then."
The two returned inside the inn and the man shuddered and trembled like a fish, from both the cold and fear. They were correct that nobody would understand them, because they spoke in riddles. But he understood, because he remembered the sadik's second word of advice: an older man who marries a younger woman brings trouble upon his head. He stood up, entered the inn, and asked to meet with the wealthy guest.
"How can I help you?" the wealthy man asked.
"I would like to speak with you in private," came the reply.
The servant was asked to leave, and the man said, "I have reason to believe that when the clock strikes twelve, an attempt will be made to take your life."
The blood left the wealthy man's face. "On what basis do you say this?" he asked.
"I will tell you later," the man replied. "For now, let me advise you not to sleep in your bed and wait in ambush for the murderers. I myself will be in the entranceway, outside the inn." He left, leaving the wealthy man in shock.
The rain continued to pour with a vengeance, and the man once again rolled up in his coat on the floor. The lights in the inn were turned off and he was left in total darkness. The hours passed by, but sleep evaded him. At midnight he heard a scream, sounds of confrontation and fighting, and frantic footsteps. Lights were turned on and the entrance to the inn flung open. "Where is he?" someone shouted. "Bring him here!"
The man was located and he was brought before the wealthy man. He told him about the conversation he heard and the ssadik's advice. "I understood that the woman plotted to have you killed and inherit all your wealth," he explained.
"How can I repay you?" the wealthy man asked.
"With thirty rubles, the amount of money I paid for that word of advice."
"You will receive ten times that amount," said the wealthy man.
Once again, faith in the sages proved itself worthwhile!
To be continued
The days of sefirat ha'omer regarding which we are commanded are the days of preparation for the receiving of the Torah. In effect, they connect one festival with the other, Pesah with Shavuot. In this sense, the Ramban writes, the period of sefirat ha'omer is like Hol Hamo'ed, just as the days between the day of judgment - Rosh Hashanah - and the day of the final sentencing - Yom Kippur - mark a period when Hashem is close to us, and during which we have the capacity to undo harsh decrees (as we learn in Masechet Rosh Hashanah 18a); and just as the days between the breach of the walls of Jerusalem - the seventeenth of Tammuz - and the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash - on Tisha Be'Av - are themselves considered days of distress and judgment, and are referred to as "Ben Hamessarim." Similarly, the day in between the physical redemption of Pesah and the redemption of the soul on the festival celebrating Matan Torah are sacred, exalted days, days of elevation and heightened spirituality, and preparation for the Shechinah's revelation. But consider this peculiar thing: on the festivals themselves there is a misvah of "simhah" (to rejoice), which constitutes a Biblical obligation, as we say in the kiddush recited on the nights of the yamim tovim: "You, Hashem our G-d, have given us with love festivals for joy, holidays and times for delight... and your sacred festivals You have bequeathed to us with joy and delight." By contrast, the interim period, the days of the omer, are not days of happiness and rejoicing. How strange indeed. After all, this is the period of preparation for Matan Torah, and the Torah rejoices the heart - "'Light' - this refers to Torah." King David speaks of the Torah as "my delight," and it is called "shirah" (song - Hulin 133a). About one who reads it unpleasantly or studies without song the pasuk says, "I have also given them statutes that are not good and laws in which they will not live" (Masechet Sofrim 3; Megilah 32a). Matters of halachah are discussed only out of the joy of the misvah (Shabbat 30b). Presumably, then, the days of preparation for Matan Torah should be days of joy. Why, then, are dancing, song, haircuts and shaving forbidden?
The answer is found in our parashah. The Torah forbids the kohanim from entering the Mikdash under the influence of alcohol. A kohen who enters after drinking wine is liable for the death penalty. But why - doesn't wine bring joy? Our sages have provided the answer: wine brings joy artificially. "Give liquor to the one destroyed, wine to the embittered souls. Let him drink and forget his suffering, and his troubles he will no longer remember" (Mishlei 31:6). But the service of G-d in the Mikdash must bring joy naturally. Indeed, there can be no greater joy: "When the Shechinah rested upon the kohen, his face shone like torches!" (Vayikra Rabbah 1:1).
What is true for the service in the Mikdash applies as well to the joy of Torah. Regarding Torah scholars the pasuk states, "Their appearance is like torches" (Nahum 2 - Vayikra Rabbah 19:3). "The wisdom of a person will light his face." No one is more joyous than they as they study Hashem's Torah: "The laws of Hashem are just, they bring joy to the heart; the misvah of Hashem is clear, illuminating the eyes."
A mourner is therefore forbidden from studying Torah, whereas he may drink wine. Wine artificially and temporarily helps one forget his troubles, in an external, superficial manner. But the study of Torah is internal joy, genuine happiness and exultation.
Therefore, Hazal did not refrain from instituting mourning practices to commemorate the death of Rabbi Akiva's students during the sacred period of sefirat ha'omer, days resembling Hol Hamo'ed - because Torah study is still allowed during this period, and it is critical for our preparation and elevation for the receiving of the Torah, to prepare our receptacle to receive the spiritual bounty of Shavuot. The Torah study will radiate strength and spiritual power, genuine happiness and joy, and thus continue the effect of Pesah, combining it with the spiritual effect of the festival of Matan Torah.
Regarding the day of the consecration of the mishkan, the residence of the Shechinah, the Torah writes, "The entire nation approached and stood before Hashem. Moshe said: This is the thing that Hashem commanded that you do, so that Hashem's honor appears to you." The Nessiv of Volozhin zs"l writes: "This pasuk calls out for an explanation - for they already did what they had to do; what else must they do?"
He offers a beautiful answer, one which is so applicable for our times and period. The nation longs for the appearance of the Shechinah, they come and stand before Hashem - and this was the "dor de'ah," the generation of knowledge, they all had the status of prophets. They undoubtedly had different ideas, suggestions, and approaches from one another. We are familiar with the different approaches: this one observes fasts, the other recites a certain chapter of Tehillim or a certain prayer, yet a third visits the grave of so-and-so and the other carries an amulet. Certainly, it is all accepted willingly before Hashem. But there is one basic, fundamental, prerequisite condition: "This is the thing that Hashem commanded that you do" - strict observance of the misvot, meticulous adherence to all the halachot and laws - "so that Hashem's honor appears to you"! This is the guarantee to the presence of the Shechinah, for both individuals and the nation as a whole. Everything else is but an addition, an enhancement. A well trained, experienced waiter will receive a nice gratuity. If his service is accompanied by smiles and a pleasant demeanor, he receive a larger tip. But if he spills the soup on the customer's suit, the smile won't help; perhaps to the contrary. And the application of this analogy to our discussion is obvious…
The sacred Hiddushei Ha'Rim zs"l once sat down to participate in a "se'udat misvah" (a misvah meal, such as a berit milah and the like). After the guests ate their fish, the soup was served. The sadik took the spoon and stirred the soup, mixing it over and over again without eating it. Needless to say, everyone refrained from partaking of their portion, waiting for the rabbi to begin eating. The hot soup gradually cooled, and the sadik was still deeply engrossed in thought. Suddenly a man burst into the hall: "Do not eat the meat - a question arose concerning its permissibility!" Only then did the sadik put down the spoon, and all the plates were quickly collected. He heard everyone around him whispering excitedly: "Overt ru'ah hakodesh!!"
He responded to the murmuring, "No, this is not ru'ah hakodesh. Everyone can reach this level of sensitivity - if he is prepared to die in order to avoid having forbidden food enter his mouth. He immediately senses what is permissible and what is forbidden."
He added that this principle is alluded to at the conclusion of Parashat Shemini (this week's parashah): "To distinguish between the impure and the pure, between the animal that is eaten and the animal that is not eaten." "That is not eaten" refers to that which one is not able to eat - from the Heavens its consumption is prevented!
The sacred Rabbenu Yosef Hayim zs"l tells a story reflecting this idea. Two partners set sail with their merchandise. A fierce storm hit, breaking the mast and tossing the ship about. The boat ultimately sank, and the two passengers made their way in the stormy waters and held onto to the mast. With whatever strength remained they maintained their grip, and the mast dragged them to the shore, where they lost consciousness.
Local fishermen found the two merchants, brought them back to consciousness and showered them with questions. Much to their consternation, the fishermen spoke Spanish, which they hardly understood, only insofar as it resembled their mother tongue, Italian. They realized they were in Spain - at a time when Spanish law decreed burning at the stake upon any Jew who stepped foot on Spanish territory. They immediately understood that they must conceal their Jewish identity at all costs. They told the locals that they were Italian merchants whose ship was sunken at sea.
The fishermen gave them water from their containers and brought them to their village, where they divided them among two families. The first merchant found himself in the house of a warm, hospitable family. They brought him food and wine and offered him a comfortable bed for sleeping. He was ravenous, but the food was not kosher. He apologetically refrained from eating, claiming that he was too tired, and went off to sleep. When he awakened, the hosts again offered him food. Despite his overpowering hunger, he abstained; he could not contaminate his soul with forbidden foods! The fisherman grew suspicious. "Are you a Jew?" he asked. The man was struck with terror. If he confessed, he would be condemned; but he could not deny it, either! The fisherman took note of his guest's distress and said, "Do not fear; we are also Jews." Noticing the man's skeptical reaction, he went into a hidden area and took out a pair of tefillin. He told him that they secretly observed Shabbat and all dietary laws. The survivor immediately put on the tefillin, satiated his hunger and answered the family's questions on matters of halachah. He then understood why he was sent there, and why his ship had sunk.
When he regained his strength, he asked his host to bring him back to his country with his partner, and there he will pay him. As they set sail, the friend said to him, "Woe unto me, for al the weeks during which I was contaminated by forbidden foods and did not put on tefillin."
The other replied, "Hashem was kind to me and brought me to a family of Jews. There I ate kosher food, wore tefillin and taught halachot!"
The friend remained silent and pensive. When they reached their city, he went to the rabbi and asked him to explain Hashem's judgment, why there was this discrimination. Why was he compelled to eat forbidden foods, while his friend was spared this necessity?
The rabbi said, "Tell me the truth, was this first time that you partook of forbidden foods? Was this the first time in your life when you did not put on tefillin?"
The man replied, "Once, during the summertime, I took a walk outside the city and the sun beat down hard. Dizzy and overcome by malaise, I found a non-Jewish inn and I asked for something to drink. They poured me some cold wine. I forgot the prohibition against drinking gentiles' wine, and the wine had its effect. A non-kosher dish was served, and I ate it. They offered me lodging, and I slept for a night and a day without any tefilah or tefillin."
The rabbi said, "If so, then Hashem's judgment is indeed truthful and just. If you once violated these prohibitions willingly, then Hashem saw no need to spare you in some miraculous manner. But your companion, who was always meticulous with regard to these laws, was protected in a situation where he could not protect himself, as it says, 'He guards the paths of His pious ones.'"
What a critical lesson this is for us - one who conducts himself carefully is assisted from the heavens!
"You shall count for yourselves from the day following the Shabbat… you shall count fifty days"
The Sefer Hahinuch zs"l (misvah 306) writes the following: "The misvah of counting the omer is to count forty-nine days from the day when the omer offering is brought… This counting is obligatory, and we must count the days every day, as well as the weeks. Among the roots of this misvah according to the straightforward interpretation is that the central, main thing of Benei Yisrael is Torah, and because of Torah heaven and earth were created, as it says, 'If not for My covenant, day and night, heaven and earth I would not have placed.' This is the main reason why Benei Yisrael were redeemed and left Egypt: so that they receive the Torah at Sinai and observe it. Indeed, Hashem told Moshe [before He sent him to take the nation from Egypt], 'This is for you the sign that I have sent you, when you take the nation from Egypt you will serve Elokim on this mountain.’ This pasuk means that His taking the people from Egypt serves as a sign that they will serve Hashem on the mountain, meaning, they will receive the Torah, the main purpose for which they are redeemed and their ultimate source of goodness. This concept is greater for them than the emergence from slavery to freedom. For this reason Hashem made their departure from slavery to freedom a sign for Moshe signaling their acceptance of the Torah, for the secondary is always a sign for the primary.
"Since it is the main thing for Yisrael, for which they were redeemed and raised to the greatness to which they ascended, we were commanded to count from the day following the first Yom Tov of Pesah until the day of the giving of the Torah, in order to show within ourselves the great longing for the day for which our hearts yearn, like a slave who always longs and yearns for the time to come when he will go into freedom. For counting reflects that the individual's entire hope and desire is to reach that time. This is why we count from the [day of] the omer offering, meaning, 'such-and-such number of days have passed from the total,' and we do not count the number of days remaining to the festival - for all this shows our strong will to reach the time. We therefore do not want to count at the beginning of our calculation the large number of days remaining."
"You shall count for yourselves from the day following the Shabbat… you shall count fifty days"
Rabbenu Yis’hak Aramah zs"l, in his work, Akedat Yis’hak (67), presents a general approach to explain the misvah of offering the omer sacrifice from barley on Pesah and the counting of the omer from the day until Shavuot, when we bring two loaves from wheat.
He writes that at the beginning of the harvest the grain is forbidden for consumption until the offering is brought, teaching us that sustenance and livelihood is not an end unto itself, but rather a means to spiritual elevation and closeness to G-d. This is the meaning of the pasuk, "Length of days are at its [the Torah's] right, at its left - wealth and honor." Just as the left hand is subsidiary to the right, so are wealth and honor secondary to the Torah. The new yield must therefore not be eaten until the time when the offering is brought in the Mikdash - teaching us that everything is secondary to spirituality.
Many people, however, are content with wealth and economic prosperity and feel no concern over their lack of a share in Torah. The Torah therefore commands us to count the days to Matan Torah, to reinforce within us the notion that the Torah is the primary thing, it is everything, and there is nothing without it. The produce is not important, and the independence we achieved with the Exodus has no significance, if we do not merit Torah and misvot and we do not earn a share in spirituality.
In order to further emphasize this point, we are commanded to bring a barley offering on the day following the Exodus. Barley is primarily animal fodder. This teaches us that independence itself and freedom from slavery is a purely physical drive and accomplishment. An animal, too, rejoices when it is released from its yoke. But on the day of Matan Torah we bring an offering of wheat, food eaten primarily by man. With Matan Torah and the service of Hashem, the greatness of man over beast is manifest.
Rabbi Avraham Aminof (Talmudi) zs"l
Rabbi Avraham Aminof zs"l, among the founders and the first chairman of the Bucharim neighborhood in Jerusalem, was remarkably diligent in his Torah study. On account of his diligence, he was called, "Rabbi Avraham Talmudi." His was born in Buchara in the year 5614. Already at a young age he earned distinction for his talents and longing for Torah, and he began learning in the yeshivah of Rabbi Pinhas Mula Neyas zs"l and with Rabbi Yehoshua Shushan zs"l. Before his thirtieth birthday he relocated to Smarkand to teach Torah there. His stay in Smarkand did not last long. Six years later he moved to Eress Yisrael and settled in Jerusalem. Recognizing his brilliance and talent, the people appointed him chief rabbi of the Bucharan community. Together with his colleagues, Rabbi Shimon Hacham, Rabbi Yossef Kugihinoff, Rabbi Shelomoh Musayof and others, zs"l, he founded the Bucharim neighborhood and was chairman of the community council. He founded the "Benei Siyon" Torah school and published sacred works, including the "Hok Le'Yisrael" Humashim with vowels, and the work of halachah, "Likkutei Dinim" which he translated into Persian in order to grant everyone access to the halachot. He did not stop, however, with the publication of books - he traveled six times to Buchara in order to publicize the works! He also grabbed onto the pillar of kindness. He would give money to the poor and compassionately see to the assistance of orphans and widows. He brought merit to the masses in spirituality and assisted them physically, as a loyal and devoted leader.
With the outbreak of the First World War, Jerusalem suffered bitterly from a shortage of food. Rabbi Avraham came to the aid of his community and secured food and support by his having earned the favor of the otherwise hostile Turkish authorities. Revered and beloved, he passed away on the ninth of Shevat, 5699, and he is buried on the Mount of Olives cemetery. May his merit protect us, Amen.
A Treasury of Halachot and Customs of the Festivals of Yisrael, Based on the Rulings of Rav Ovadia Yossef shlit"a
by Rav David Yossef shlit"a
The Misvah of Counting the Omer (continued)
One must count sefirat ha'omer verbally. One who counts in his mind alone, without articulating the words, does not fulfill his obligation. He must therefore count once again with a berachah. Likewise, one who writes a letter to his friend and includes the day of the omer in the date in the heading, has not fulfilled his obligation in this manner. He thus counts again with a berachah. Nevertheless, one should preferably refrain from writing the number day of the omer before reciting it properly with a berachah.
One must be particularly meticulous regarding the misvah of counting the omer. Hazal say (Midrash Rabbah, Vayikra 28:6) that in the merit of this misvah, Avraham merited the inheritance of Eress Yisrael for himself and his offspring. One who does not fulfill the misvah of sefirat ha'omer has neglected a rabbinically ordained misvah. The Zohar Hakadosh (Emor, 97b) writes about such an individual that he is not considered pure and is rendered unworthy of a portion in Torah. One should therefore make an extra effort during sefirah period to recite arvit with a minyan in order that he not forgot to count sefirat ha'omer.
Those Included in the Obligation of Sefirat Ha'omer
A minor who has yet to reach the age of misvot is to be educated in the misvah of counting the omer with a berachah each night. If the child forgot to count one night and remembered only the following night, he nevertheless continues counting with a berachah for educational purposes. A minor may not recite the berachah or count on behalf of an adult. A minor who became a bar misvah during the period of sefirat ha'omer, even should his birthday occur on the seventeenth of Nissan (the second day of the omer), may not continue counting sefirat ha'omer with a berachah from that day on. The reason is that since prior to his birthday he was not obligated in the misvah, and, as such, his counting during those days was not considered a valid "counting" as far as the halachah is concerned, his counting after his bar misvah cannot be considered "complete" (as the pasuk requires, "temimot"). Therefore, from his thirteenth birthday on he counts the omer without a berachah, and in the following year he counts the omer with a berachah. As we know, we never recite a berachah when its obligation is in doubt. The boy should preferably listen to the berachah from the sheli'ah sibur, answer amen, and then count the omer by himself.
The Great Geyser
In a most impressive eruption from the ground, the great geyser, a steam jet, bursts forth, boiling and fiery, reaching a height of several dozen meters. Iceland is famous for its geysers, rivers and hot water springs. In the depths in which the island's rivers flow, mainly in the southwestern regions, clouds of steam are always seen rising from the water or from the ground. The most famous of these is the great geyser which features a width of two hundred forty feet. It looks like a lake and its crater resembles that of a volcano. One who approaches the lake will see a crater with a diameter of three meters running deep into the ground where it joins up with many different brooks that supply it with boiling water. The temperature of the water that erupts from the geyser reaches 175 degrees Fahrenheit, and in the depths of the ground the water can be as hot as 250 degrees Fahrenheit. The eruption of the great geyser is eye-catching to say the least. It takes place once every 20-30 hours and lasts for several hours. The waters in the geyser's basin become stormy and overflow their banks. In full view of the dazzled observer, a pillar of boiling water rises towards the heavens like a stormy wind. It then disappears and the skies clear. Suddenly, a new pillar bursts forth from the crater, higher and wider, creating a pillar of steam 90 feet high or more. Having become exhausted, as it were, the geyser "rests" for about 24 hours, as if it garners strength in preparation for the next eruption.
The eruption of the geyser is a wondrous phenomenon, one which draws interest and attracts large crowds of spectators. An outburst of this sort by human beings, however, is a whole different matter entirely. A person who "erupts" not only fails to attract people, but actually distances from himself all those who seek to live in peace and tranquillity. Someone who, when becoming angry, can go so far as to break objects around him is strongly condemned by our Sages, who equate him with an idolater. We Jews know that anger, like other character traits, is a quality that one must work on in order to bring it fully under his control, and it results from the quality of arrogance, to which the Al-mighty strongly objects. Overpowering anger is hard, but possible, and the reward is at its side - before one subdues his anger, all types of punishments of Gehinnom have power over him; once he subdues his anger, he takes control over himself and thus becomes beloved by others and by the Al-mighty Himself.
Gamliel Ben Nizha and Yis'hak Shaul Ben Leah
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