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Hazal (Yoma 9b) comment that the first Bet Hamikdash was destroyed because of the three severe transgressions that Benei Yisrael violated: idolatry, adultery and murder, as explicitly indicated by several pesukim. How startling it is, then, to read the following remark of Rav Hamnuna: "Yerushalayim was destroyed only because its schoolchildren were idle, as it says (Yirmiyahu 6:11), 'I am filled with the anger of Hashem, I can no longer bear it, it is cast on the youngsters outside.'

Why was it [anger] cast - because the youngsters were outside!" (Shabbat 119b)

Meaning, were the youngsters to have been in the Bet Midrash, if they had received a Torah education, if they were attached to the heritage, then Hashem would have exercised restraint, as it were, He would not have cast His anger against Benei Yisrael.

For then there would have been hope and a chance for improvement, the possibility of correcting the mistakes of the present generation. Hashem would have forgiven even the most severe sins in the Torah. But when the schoolchildren were not studying, when they were detached from the heritage and given an education bereft of faith, when heresy and disdain for misvot were implanted within them -- nothing can stop Hashem's anger.

For this reason, Rav Ovadia Yossef shlit"a, the loyal shepherd, has cried over the millions of Jewish children who do not even know the Shema, and for this reason he established the "El Hama'ayan" movement, including its widespread network of Torah-oriented youth groups. This also places a heavy responsibility on parents' shoulders. Now, during summer vacation, parents must pay extra attention to the "youngsters outside." The children should be sent to Torah youth groups and camps, summer learning programs, and other educational settings.


This Shabbat we read for our haftarah the portion of "Hazon Yeshayahu." Am Yisrael had throughout its history 1,200,000 prophets, but only those prophecies necessary for future generations were recorded (Megilah 14a). Thus, this prophecy, too, was written for us, and we must read it in an attempt to find the reference to ourselves. Unfortunately, in this case it is very simple.

"Listen, heavens; hark, the earth - for Hashem has spoken. I have raised and exalted children, and they have sinned against Me." What does the prophet tell the people of his time? You have a country, an independent state, an army and strong economy. I have made you great and exalted -- but you turn your back on the One who gave you all this!

The next pasuk reads, "An ox knows its owner, and a donkey, it master's trough; but Yisrael has not known, My nation has not contemplated." A beautiful explanation of this pasuk was offered by Rabbi Haninah Zohar of Morocco, in his work, "Rashei Besamim." The Midrash (Pesikta Rabbati 14) tells the story of a Jew who owned a cow for plowing. But he came upon hard times and was forced to sell it to a gentile.

The gentile took it and used it for plowing during the six weekdays. Then, on Shabbat, he took the animal to plow, but it crouched underneath the yoke. The new owner smote it and beat it, but the animal did not budge. The Jew realized that the cow had grown accustomed to a six-day schedule while under his ownership. He approached the gentile and said, "Here, let me try to get it to stand." He approached the animal and whispered in its ear, "Cow, I know that when you were under my possession you worked only during the workweek and rested on Shabbat.

Now, as a result of my sins, you are in gentile hands, so please stand up and plow." The cow immediately stood up and began plowing. The gentile began shouting, demanding that the Jew tell him what he whispered in the animal's ear. The Jew explained that he did not use any magic or sorcery, and he told the gentile what he said. The non-Jew was very frightened and said, "If a cow, who neither speaks nor thinks, recognizes its Creator, then how do I, who has been created in G-d's image and granted wisdom, do not recognize my Creator?" He immediately converted and studied Torah, ultimately emerging as a scholar who was known as "Yonatan Ben Tura" (Yonatan the "son of the cow"), and to this day sages say halachot in his name!

The Gemara in Masechet Hulin (7b) tells another story of Rav Pinhas Ben Yair (the faither-in-law of Rabbi Shimon Bar Yohai), who once embarked on a misvah-related mission. Towards evening he arrived at an inn along the main road and he left his donkey in the barn. The innkeepers placed barley before the donkey, but it refused to eat, even after they were thoroughly sifted and cleaned from any filth. Rabbi Pinhas Ben Yair asked, "Perhaps they have not been tithed?" They separated the required tithes, and the donkey ate them. He said to the innkeepers, "This poor animal is going to perform the will of its Creator, and you are feeding it 'tevel' [produce that has not been tithed]?!"

To this the prophet alludes in our pasuk: "An ox knows its owner": look at the cow that knew that it may not perform work on Shabbat; "a donkey, its master's trough": recall that donkey that knew that it may not eat food that was not properly tithed. "Yisrael has not known, My nation has not contemplated." We are even worse than the animals; we have lost the natural fear of sin!

The prophet continues: "They have left Hashem, they have angered the Sacred One of Yisrael, they have turned their backs on Him. Why do you seek further beatings, that you continue to offend? Every head is ailing, and every heart is sick." This all relates to what we mentioned. How awful it is to lose the natural sense to do what's right and refrain from wrong; one who does so becomes worse than the ox and donkey who know their owner and master's trough. "Yisrael has not known." This we understand. But what does the prophet mean when he adds, "My nation has contemplated"?

Contemplation refers to opening one's eyes and looking at what transpires around him. The Torah writes after presenting the frightening "tochahah" (series of curses that will befall Benei Yisrael should they disobey Hashem): "My anger will flare up against them, and I will abandon them and hide My countenance from them. They shall be ready prey; and many evils and troubles shall befall them. And they shall say on that day, 'Surely it is because our G-d is not in our midst that these evils have befallen us!'" (Devarim 31:17). Here, we see with our own eyes that when we abandon Hashem and anger the Sacred One of Yisrael, when there are those who battle against all that is holy, then we "turn back" in all areas - in terms of security, politically, and economically. The heavens stop producing rain, the Kinneret runs dry, the national water carrier becomes contaminated, agriculture collapses and nothing runs properly. "Why do you seek further beatings, that you continue to offend? Every head is ailing, and every heart is sick." Why must we suffer? Let us take fate into our own hands and improve our situation. "Wash yourselves clean; put your evil doings away from My sight; cease to do evil. If you agree and give heed, you will eat the good things of the earth. But if you refuse and disobey, you will be devoured by the sword" - Heaven forbid. This haftara is so relevant to us, and it ends with the hope of redemption: "Siyon shall be saved through justice; her repentant ones through righteousness."


Rabbi Yosef Subairi zs"l

A full year has passed since the passing of the crown jewel of Yemenite Jewry, Rabbi Yosef Subairi zs"l, whose soul ascended to the heavens after eighty-four years full of Torah and faith, misvot and good deeds.

The Gemara writes that already in the earlier stages of the growth of certain vegetables one can discern which will become larger than the others. Indeed, Rabbi Yosef distinguished himself already in his younger years from all his peers, acquiring remarkably vast knowledge in all areas of Torah -- written and oral, the revealed and "hidden" areas of the Torah. At the age of sixteen he began his major work, "Emunat Hashem" in which he demonstrated his incredible breadth of knowledge and penetrating insight, proving that "all of Torah is one topic" (Tosefta Sanhedrin, 7) and "all Your words are one, and we know to expound them" (Megilah 13a). There does not, Heaven forbid, exist any contradiction between the words of the Kabbalists and those of the Gemara and poskim. For "they were all given from one shepherd, one leader stated them from the Master of all things, blessed is He" (Hagigah 3a).

He similarly composed a work entitled "Masoret Meduyeket" discussing the musical notes ("ta'amim") of the Tanach, another sefer called "Vayisbor Yosef Bar" on the Shulhan Aruch, a commentary on the siddur called "Emet Veyassiv," and a work on the Haggadah, "Maggid Meresheet." Many of his other works have yet to be published.

He was a faithful shepherd for his community, guiding them along the paths of Torah. He exerted himself tirelessly on behalf of communal needs and lent a compassionate ear to those who sought his advice and comfort during times of crisis. He would speak comforting words of encouragement and grant people his blessing. He was a lover and pursuer of peace, who loved people and brought them close to Torah. He canceled his will for the sake of the will of others and fled from controversy as he would from a raging fire. He occupied himself in the quest for peace on the communal and individual levels and was graced with all the qualities necessary for the acquisition of Torah: he did not assume privileges for himself, he was loved, he loved the Al-mighty, loved people, loved righteousness, and loved upright behavior. May his example shine for us, may his ways guide us always, and may his merit protect us, Amen.

A Treasury of Halachot and Customs of the Festivals of Yisrael Based on the Rulings of Rav Ovadia Yossef shlit"a

by Rav David Yossef shlit"a

The Halachot of Tisha B'Av That Falls on Mossa'ei Shabbat

When Tisha Be'Av falls on Mossa'ei Shabbat, one should not remove his leather shoes immediately at sundown as we normally do when Tisha Be'Av begins on a weeknight.

He rather continues wearing them until after nightfall and some time added onto Shabbat (i.e. around twenty minutes after sundown). He should then say, "Baruch hamavdil ben kodesh lehol" ("Blessed is the One who distinguishes between sacred and mundane"), remove his shoes, don weekday garments, and go to the Bet Kenesset to recite Arbit, Eichah and Kinnot.

It is proper in all locations to begin Arbit on Tisha Be'Av that falls on Mossa'ei Shabbat at least a half-hour after sundown in order to allow people time to change their clothing and remove their shoes in their homes after nightfall. [Translator's note: the times given here apply to Eress Yisrael; the required duration of time after sundown will be different in other locations in the world. One must therefore consult with a calendar with the appropriate times for his community.]

One does not recite havdalah over a cup of wine on Mossa'ei Shabbat when Tisha Be'Av falls. He recites only the havdalah of "Atah honantanu" in the Arbit service.

If he omitted "Atah honantanu" he need not repeat Amidah. However, he must say "Baruch hamavdil ben kodesh lehol" before he performs any activity forbidden on Shabbat.

Before the recitation of Eichah, we recite the berachah of "borei me'orei ha'esh" over a candle. (One must ensure that before lighting the candle he had recited Arbit with "Atah honanatanu"; if he hasn't, he must recite "Baruch hamavdil. " before lighting the candle.)

We do not recite the berachah over spices on the Mossa'ei Shabbat when Tisha Be'Av falls, and even on Tisha Be'Av itself one should not smell fragrant spices.

On Mossa'ei Tisha Be'Av, we recite havdalah over a cup of wine, with the berachot of "borei peri hagefen" and "hamavdil," but without the berachot over the candle and spices.

One who is exempt from fasting on Tisha Be'Av, such as ill patients, a woman within thirty days after childbirth, and those celebrating a berit (the father, mohel and sandak) on Tisha Be'Av that was postponed from Shabbat to Sunday, must recite havdalah over a cup of wine before eating on Sunday, as one may not eat at all after Shabbat before reciting havdalah over a cup of wine. They may fulfill the obligation on behalf of the members of their household with that havdalah; the family members need not recite havdalah after Tisha Be'Av. If a minor who has reached the age of education is present, the one reciting havdalah should not taste the wine. Instead, he gives it to the child who should drink the minimum required quantity (the majority of a revi'it, around 41 ml). If this creates difficulty for the child, he may take just a sip.

If the patient does not know how to recite havdalah, a healthy individual may recite havdalah on his behalf, after which the patient drinks the wine. The healthy individual may have in mind to fulfill his obligation of havdalah through this recitation, and need not repeat havdalah after Tisha Be'Av.

A minor who eats on Tisha Be'Av that falls on Sunday need not recite havdalah before eating.


Dear Brothers,

A frightening story is told relevant to the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash, an incident that arouses many thoughts concerning our period today. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 64a) relates that Eliyahu Hanavi was surveying the victims of starvation in the besieged city of Yerushalayim. He came across a young child whose belly was bloated from hunger and was cast into the trash. The prophet asked him, "From whose family are you?" The boy told Eliyahu his family name. "Is there anyone left from that family?" Eliyahu inquired. "No," replied the boy, "only me." Eliyahu then asked the boy if he would be willing to learn something through which he would be able survive. The child answered in the affirmative. Eliyahu said, "Recite every day the pasuk, 'Shema Yisrael Hashem Elokenu Hashem ehad'!" "Silence!" shouted the boy, "do not mention the Name of Hashem." His parents never taught him the shema. The boy took his idol from his pocket and embraced and kissed it until it broke. It fell onto the ground and the boy fell on top of it, in fulfillment of the pasuk, "I will place your corpses on top of the corpses of your abominations."


For generations, Jews have been declaring, "Shema Yisrael!" In the "korbanot" section of tefilah, in the section of "yosser or," in Arbit, before going to sleep - at least four times a day. In Selihot during the month of Elul - we say Shema Yisrael. In the kedushah on mussaf - we say Shema Yisrael. At the conclusion of Yom Kippur - Shema Yisrael.

The very first thing a Jewish child learns is keri'at shema (Sukkah 42a). And with those same words a Jew hands over his soul to the Al-mighty when his time arrives.

And in the generation of the destruction, Eliyahu Hanavi came across a Jewish child who refused to say it because his parents never taught it to him.

Sadly, this has occurred in our generation, as well. The redemption tarries because of millions of beautiful children, pure souls, who do not know how to read the shema. The school system in Israel decided to uproot everything, to ensure "not to recite the Name of Hashem."

Anyone capable must answer to the call of Rav Ovadia Yossef shlit"a, to become involved in Jewish youth and restore the glory of Torah, to ensure their familiarity with the Name of Hashem and shema, to bring the redemption closer and hasten the rebuilding of the Bet Hamikdash.

Shabbat Shalom

Aryeh Deri


Communication Between the Beast and its Prey

Until recently it was believed that the noises produced by animals when they see a threatening beast of prey served as a warning signal to others from their group.

Later researchers, however, have demonstrated that other factors prompt these sounds.

Take, for example, the "zanvan," also known as the Palestine babbler, a species of singing birds living in the Arava in Israel. When a group of babblers wander in search of food, for example, they maintain a short distance between them and make soft sounds. However, wonder of wonders, just when a threatening bird appears in the distance, when we would have perhaps expected the babblers to be frozen in their places, they hide in the bushes and carefully watch the enemy's movements with fear and dread until it passes. Only then do begin transmitting warning signals at very high volume. Some of them also jump onto the top of a bush and sound the warning signal from there. This loud cry can be heard even from vast distances. The wonder increases when the enemy stops or even moves far away from them. Then, rather than distancing themselves even further from the bird of prey, the babblers continue their warning calls and follow the enemy. It thus appears that the sounds that they produce are a form of communication with the enemy itself, as if to say, "We found you, and you cannot catch us. Go somewhere else." All this is fine and good, but why doesn't the strong, powerful and threatening bird of prey bother listening to creatures far weaker than he? The answer is that a bird of prey can catch only weak, frail, ill or unsuspecting creatures, those that it can easily attack. Therefore, the bird of prey is very interested to hear these warning signals, discovering that he should not waste his time and energy by going after them. The logical question, though, arises, why can't the frail or weak potential victim trick the bird of prey into thinking that in reality it is strong and healthy? This communication system established by the Creator must be honest, otherwise it would not work. In order to ensure integrity, only a healthy creature would dare reveal itself and thereby be exposed to potential danger.

The Creator of the world implanted within these creatures this natural sense of honesty. "Lehavdil," in the human world, too, honesty and propriety assume great importance, only the human being has free choice to decide on which path to walk. When the yesser hara incites a person to act improperly, the Jew relies on the maxim, "One who walks honestly walks securely."


Reb Nahumke (9)

Flashback: The studious and talented businessman, Reb Yehudah Leib Ganker, adopted the young Nahumke as a son and guided him along the path of straightforward, logical Talmud study. When Yehudah Leib was forced to leave on business, Nehumke left his house and went to the nearby city of Beisgelah to join the students in the local Bet Midrash. To his dismay, however, the method of learning was not his style. One enjoyed useless "pilpul," the other attempted to draw razor-thin distinctions, and the third made no attempt to understand anything beyond the meaning of the words. In the end, he did not find his place there and he fell into depression, prompting him to leave and return to his father's home.

He arrived home to a rather harsh welcoming, as his parents did not hide their disappointment. Mr. Ganker always had only the highest praises to speak of Nahumke, his talents, lightening fast comprehension, diligence and intensity. They had hopes that he would emerge as a first-rate Torah scholar, the desire of any Jewish parent. Now, they faced such disappointment - he left the Bet Midrash and fled from the battle of Torah.

Nehumke did not find rest in his parents' home, as the depressing atmosphere just added to his own melancholy. He decided to go to the forest and collect mushrooms.

His sisters were busy with mushroom-picking, as they would save money for their dowry by selling mushrooms. He would walk among the trees and shrubs with his soul ablaze, and he would sing the songs of Tehillim full of emotion and with his beautiful voice. His sisters, who collected mushrooms far away, heard his singing and were inspired. They told his father, who said to Nahumke, "Listen, my son, picking mushrooms is a woman's activity. If you don't find your place in the Bet Midrash, then you must find a profession for yourself."

Nahumke kept his silence. What could he say? Finally, he answered, "I have no professional skills. Let me work as a singer and assistant to the hazan, as I have a pleasant voice and I know how to sing. The hazan in Beisgelah heard my voice as I studied and offered me a position as his assistant!"

"Certainly," exclaimed his father, excitedly. "Let's talk to him."

"I am not returning to Beisgelah," insisted Nahumke. How would it look if he left his studies only to return as the cantor's assistant?

The father understood and did not insist. Soon later, a well-known hazan arrived in town with his choir. The father presented Nahumke before him, he heard the young man's voice, and welcome him into the choir. Nahumke thus became a choir boy. Dressed in fancy clothing, he would travel with the hazan from city to city and from region to region. He learned how to harmonize and blend his voice with the others, and the hazan withheld nothing from him. However, even this period of Nahumke's life ended in disappointment. He reached adulthood and his voice changed. He could no longer assist the hazan, and was forced to leave the choir. Once again, he found himself alone in the world.

To be continued

A Summary of the Shiur Delivered by Rav Ovadia Yossef shlit"a on Mossa'ei Shabbat
The Halachot of Tisha Be'Av

The story is told of Rabbi Yom Tov Yisrael zs"l, the rabbi of the Jewish community in Egypt, who once walked past a Jewish-owned coffee shop on Tisha Be'Av. The owner brazenly recited "shehakol" and took a sip of his cup of coffee just as the rabbi walked by. He ridiculed the fast, saying, "Every year, for two thousand years, we mourn?!" Later that year, on Erev Purim, when the shopkeeper was busy preparing special treats for Purim, the rabbi sent for him and ordered his incarceration as punishment for drinking on Tisha Be'Av. The man asked why the rabbi waited until then to punish him, just when he is busy preparing Purim treats. The rabbi replied, "Every year we celebrate, for two thousand years?!"

In truth, this two-thousand-year old mourning demonstrates that our hope for redemption has not been lost, for Hashem decreed that people forget only their loved ones who have perished, not those who remain alive. Thus, our recollection of the Mikdash proves that it has never completely left us.

This mourning laments not only the destruction of the Mikdash per se, but also everything that resulted - the bitter exile, the calamities, pogroms, and murder of righteous sadikim. May Hashem soon put an end to our troubles, and may the tears shed for the many sacred souls that have perished serve to protect us.

The Gemara in Baba Batra (60b) says that although we must mourn for the loss of the Bet Hamikdash, Hazal could not introduce measures by which the masses would be unable to abide, such as total abstinence from meat and wine. For several days, however, we can refrain from meat and wine, and the custom thus evolved not to partake of wine or meat from after Rosh Hodesh Av through the morning of the tenth of Av (with the exception of Shabbatot). Children who are somewhat weak, even if they have reached the age of education when they must be trained in misvot, may eat meat.

As opposed to the ruling of the Mishnah Berurah, one should not be stringent in this regard, since minors are not included in mourning as far as halachah is concerned, even the standard rules of mourning. (See Yabi'a Omer vol. 1, Yoreh De'ah 4; vol. 3, Yoreh De'ah 3.) Friends and relatives of a family conducting a berit milah may eat meat at the "se'udat misvah." The same applies to those participating in a celebration upon the completion of a masechet - a "siyum" - and to those who shared in the expenses of the meal. (See Yehaveh Da'at vol. 1, 40.)

An ill patient may eat on Tisha Be'Av even if his illness poses no threat to his life. In all such cases, however, a competent rav should be consulted before eating. A woman within thirty days from childbirth does not fast. Those exempt from the fast may eat as they need and in one sitting; they need not eat small quantities at a time, as they must on Yom Kippur. They should not, however, indulge in delicacies.

Likewise, children should not be trained to fast on Tisha Be'Av, as its obligation is only on the level of "derabbanan," as opposed to Yom Kippur, which is mandated by the Torah, and on which they should be gradually trained to fast. Nevertheless, they should not indulge in delicacies. If they are approaching the age of misvot and wish to fast, adults must supervise them and make sure that they do not become sick. However, those are not ill, including pregnant and nursing woman, who are exempt from the other fasts (besides Yom Kippur), must fast throughout the entire day of Tisha Be'Av. For the House of Hashem it is worth causing oneself discomfort one day a year.

On Shabbat Rosh Hodesh Av we read the haftarah for the second Shabbat of the three weeks ("Shimu"), and not the standard haftarah for Shabbat Rosh Hodesh. No other change is made on this Shabbat from any other Shabbat. Although some have the practice of wearing weekday clothing on this Shabbat, already the Radbaz denounced this custom, as did many authorities among the Ashkenazim.

Ashkenazim have the practice of refraining from haircuts during the three weeks, but the Shulhan Aruch ruled that only during the week in which Tisha Be'Av falls must one abstain from haircutting. Even during that week, one may comb his hair as usual and not worry if hairs fall out in the process. This year, when Tisha Be'Av falls on Sunday, the prohibition against haircutting does not apply.

On Tisha Be'Av one may not learn Torah except for the halachot of mourning, Megilat Eichah with its commentaries and Midrashim, and Sefer Iyov with Rashi. Sefer Iyov proves that Hashem's ways are just. Even though Iyov was righteous and suffered, the Mahari Beirav zs"l writes that he received a tradition that Iyov was the reincarnation of Terah, the father of Avraham, who sinned and led others to sin by promoting idolatry.

He therefore required atonement through suffering. After the suffering, Hashem granted Iyov greater wealth and good fortune than he enjoyed previously. We, too, look to the heavens in prayer that after the atonement of this long and bitter exile, we will be comforted through the rebuilding of Yerushalayim and the Bet Hamikdash.


"These are the words that Moshe spoke to all of Yisrael"

The Or Hahayyim Hakadosh zs"l explained that Moshe spoke only "these words," and not other words. Meaning, Moshe Rabbenu never spoke any words other than those involving Torah and spiritual guidance.

"To all of Yisrael" comes to teach us that Moshe directed his comments not only to that generation, but to all generations of Benei Yisrael for eternity. (It is well known that the "Yehudi Hakadosh" zs"l would learn Sefer Devarim every day, claiming that it constitutes the most penetrating work of "mussar" available to any Jew.)

"These are the words that Moshe spoke to all of Yisrael"

This sefer has two names: "Devarim" and "Mishneh Torah," which correspond to the sefer's two primary themes. First, it contains words - "devarim" - of rebuke.

(The verb "d.v.r." connotes harsh words, as Rashi writes in Bemidbar 12:1.) Additionally, the sefer repeats - "mishneh" - several previously mentioned misvot in order to introduce new details. (Even the misvot introduced for the first time in this sefer are alluded to by earlier misvot; see Ramban to Devarim 18:3; 21:18; 22:6; and 22:8.)

Rabbenu David Abuhassera zs"l Hy"d wrote in his work, "Petah Ha'ohel" that both names are alluded to in this opening pasuk. The numerical value of the words, "Eleh hadevarim asher diber" ("These are the words that he spoke"), including the spelled-out names of the letters, equals the numerical value of "Mishneh Torah." This also explains the juxtaposition between the end of Sefer Bemidbar and the beginning of Sefer Devarim. The previous sefer concluded with the words, "These are the misvot and statutes that Hashem commanded through Moshe to Benei Yisrael." Our sefer begins, "These are the words that Moshe spoke to all of Yisrael." These two pesukim reflect the two themes of the sefer: misvot and words of rebuke.

"These are the words that Moshe spoke to all of Yisrael"

The Torat Hacham zs"l explains that the pasuk comes to stress the fact that Moshe administered these words of rebuke only to all of Yisrael. When he spoke with the Al-mighty, however, he spoke only kind words about Benei Yisrael and always defended them, committing himself on their behalf like the faithful shepherd he was.

"These are the words that Moshe spoke to all of Yisrael"

Rabbenu Efrayim zs"l observed that the word "eleh" (these) has the numerical value of thirty-six. The following word, "hadevarim" ("the words"), refers to the leaders (see Sanhedrin 8a). This pasuk thus alludes to the thirty-six sadikim in every generation (Sukkah 45b; Sanhedrin 97b).

The Hid"a zs"l adds that these sadikim draw their strength from the sparks of Moshe Rabbenu's soul that exist in every generation (Tikkunei Zohar 114a). This is alluded to by our pasuk: "Eleh hadevarim" - the thirty-six sadikim - "that Moshe spoke" - meaning, their leadership is sustained by the leadership of Moshe Rabbenu.

Gamliel Ben Nizhah

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