ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafYoma 18
(a) The elders of Beis-Din would address the Kohen Gadol as 'Ishi Kohen
(b) During the seven days of Hafrashah - they would read to him the order of
Yom Kipur from Parshas Acharei-Mos.
(c) When they made him read the Parshah - they would tell him that they were
doing so because maybe he forgot or maybe he never learnt it.
(a) On Erev Yom Kipur, the elders of Beis-Din would stand him by the eastern
gate and pass bulls, lambs and rams before him - to make him reflect about
the Avodah of tomorrow.
(b) They withhold food from him on Erev Yom Kipur (i.e. did not allow him to
eat a lot) - because a heavy meal causes sleep, and sleep increases the
possibility of seeing Keri (presumably stronger than usual in the Kohen
Gadol then, because of the high tension).
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'ha'Kohen ha'Gadol me'Echav" - that the Kohen
Gadol should be superior to the other Kohanim in four areas: strength,
looks, wisdom and wealth.
(b) Acheirim learns from "ha'Gadol me'Echav" - that if the Kohen Gadol was
not wealthy, the other Kohanim were obligated to make him wealthy.
(c) The Kohen Gadol had to be superior to the other Kohanim in wisdom, and
indeed that was the case during the first Beis-Hamikdash. But alas, during
the period of the second Beis Hamikdash, they became extremely lax, and
Kohanim who were unfit for the post would pay money to the Chashmona'i kings
in order to receive the Kehunah Gedolah. That explains how the elders of
Beis-Din were able to say to the Kohen Gadol 'Perhaps you never learnt'!
(d) Marsa bas Baytus gave two Sa'ah of Dinrim to King Yanai - so that he
should appoint the man to whom she was betrothed (Yehoshua ben Gamla) to the
(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, they would pass bulls, rams and
lambs before the Kohen Gadol. He did not include goats, like the Tana of the
Beraisa did - because, in his opinion, seeing as the goat brought on Yom
Kipur, was a Chatas Tzibur, goats would have the adverse effect of reminding
him of Yisrael's sins, which in turn, would cause him to feel faint.
(b) They did on the other hand, pass *bulls* before him, despite the fact
that the bull on Yom Kipur comes to atone for the sins of his fellow Kohanim
- because he would be well-acquainted with the deeds of his fellow Kohanim,
and if anything, he would spurn the sinner on to repent (but he would hardly
be conversant with all the deeds of the whole of Klal Yisrael, so that, in
his helplessness, seeing the goats would have the adverse effect, as we
(c) We learn from here that a wealthy person is well-advised to keep clear
of a relative who is a king's officer - because he will know all about his
wealth and look for an excuse to claim it from him on behalf of the king.
(a) According to some Tana'im, during the seven days of Hafrashah they would
feed the Kohen Gadol food made of flour, and eggs - because they will clear
his stomach, thereby removing the need for him to do so on Yom Kipur during
(b) Others object on the grounds that flour and egg dishes heat the stomach
and would cause him to see Keri.
(c) According to Sumchus quoting Rebbi Meir, they would not feed him 'Abi' -
which stands for *E*srog, *B*eitzim & *Y*ayin Yashan.
(d) Some add white wine, others *B*asar Shamen.
(a) 'Zav Tolin Lo be'Ma'achal, be'Chol Minei Ma'achal' - means that if it is
possible to ascribe the Zivus that one sees to an excess of any kind of
food, then we do indeed do so, and he is not Tamei.
(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira, during the days of examination,
a Zav should refrain from eating 'Chagbi' - *Ch*alav, *G*evinah, *B*eitzim,
and *Y*ayin, and Gavam - Mei *G*erisim shel Pul, *B*asar Shamen and *M*urias
(a thick bean stew, juicy meat and salty fish-juice).
(c) 've'Lo Kol Devarim ha'Mevi'in Liyedei Tum'ah' comes to includes four
more things - garlic, cress, purselane-plant and white-mustard.
(a) Gargir (white-mustard) is referred to in Melachim as 'Oros' - because it
lights up the eyes.
Rav advises a guest neither to eat eggs, nor to cover oneself at night-time
with a garment that his host will wear during the day: the former because it
causes Keri, the latter, because he may leave Keri on it, which the host
will discover when he wears it in the course of the day.
(b) Rav Huna says that if one is able to eat white mustard, then one should;
if not, then one should pass it over one's eyes.
(c) Rav Papa points out that this applies only to Gargir Metzarna'ah -
meaning those that grow on the border which do not have other seeds growing
around them to weaken their strength.
(a) When Rav and Rav Nachman traveled, they would marry a woman for the one
day that they would spend in that town - in order to minimize the Yetzer-
ha'Ra with regards to desire for women, because of the principle 'Eino Domeh
Mi she'Yesh Lo Pas be'Salo, le'Mi she'Ein Lo Pas be'Salo' ('there is no
comparison between someone who *has* bread in his basket to someone who does
(b) How could they do this, in light of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov, who
forbade a person to live in one country and marry a second wife in another -
because the half-siblings may one day meet without knowing each other and
get married, and have children who will be Mamzeirim?
(c) We reject the Gemara's initial answer (that Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov
does not refer to Talmidei-Chachamim, whose children were well-known) - on
the basis of Rava, who declares that a man who asks a woman's hand in
marriage must then wait 'seven clean days' before marrying her (because she
may, as a result of her excitement, become a Nidah)?
(d) The Gemara then answers that they would send a Sheliach seven days in
advance to find them a short-term wife, or that they would marry the women
but without consummating the marriage (others take 'Yichudei Havu Meyachdi
Lehu' to mean that they did not really marry them at all, but just
designated them for marrriage - see Tosfos DH 'Yichudi').
(a) The elders of Beis-Din then handed the Kohen Gadol over to the elders of
the Kehunah - who took him to the Lishkas Beis Avtinas (where the Ketores
was prepared) to teach him how to perform the Chafinah (taking a handful of
Ketores, which was a very difficult Avodah, and which will be discussed
later in the Masechta).
(b) They made the Kohen Gadol swear that he would finalize the Chafinah
*inside* the Kodesh Kodshim, and not *outside*, like the Tzedokim used to
(c) If he was a Talmid-Chacham, he would spend the night Darshening. If he
1. ... unable to Darshen but was sufficiently versed to understand Derashos
- then Talmidei-Chachamim would Darshen to him.
(d) If he was not even capable of reading T'nach, they would read to him
from Iyov, Ezra and Divrei Hayamim (because these sections were particularly
interesting), and according to the testimony of Zecharyah ben Kevutal -
also from Daniel.
2. ... neither able to Darshen, nor to understand a Derashah - then they
would get him to read sections of T'nach.