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Previous dafYoma 65
YOMA 59-88 have been dedicated to the memory of the late Dr. Simcha
Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. by his wife
and daughters. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he
will long be remembered.
1) [line 2] MAFRISH SHTEI CHATA'OS L'ACHRAYUS
(a) When a person is worried that his Korban Chatas may be lost, he is able
to designate two animals, saying, "I hereby designate one of these animals
as my Korban Chatas. If that animal gets lost, the other animal will be my
Korban Chatas in its stead." If one of the animals does get lost, he is
permitted to offer the other animal as his Chatas.
(b) If neither animal gets lost, and one animal is sacrificed as his
Chatas, a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the second animal also
obtains the sanctity of a Chatas, to a certain extent. It is called "a
Chatas that was designated for Achrayus (as a substitute)," and it is not
sacrificed as a Chatas because its owner has already brought his Korban
2) [line 7] K'MAFRISH L'IBUD DAMI - is like he initially separated it for
3) [line 27] SHIKLEIHEN
(a) In the Beis ha'Mikdash, many public sacrifices were offered (for
example the daily Temidim, the Korbenos Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and the
festivals etc.). In order to finance these Korbanos, one half a Shekel was
collected from every Jew, both those living in Eretz Yisrael and in the
Golah, once a year.
(b) The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the
Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be
offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of
Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to
ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh
Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a
portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan,
while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan,
since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from
Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the
conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)
(c) The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a
Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei"
(the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not *less* than
the value of half a Shekel.
(d) The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers
to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was
equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is
half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the
coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out"
("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each
year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).
4) [line 28] TERUMAH (TERUMAS HA'LISHKAH)
(a) Every year, one half a Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the
Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed
the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that
purpose (see previous entry).
(b) At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals),
Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately
25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with
Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was
called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were
called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim
(c) There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was
done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the
reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see
Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the
Terumas ha'Lishkah should be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later
in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).
(d) The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the
animals needed for public sacrifices, while the Shekalim from the Sheyarei
ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the
Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).
5) [line 37] SE'IREI AVODAH ZARAH
(a) The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) must bring a Korban if they
issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act of idolatry that carries a
Chiyuv Kares and the Jewish people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the
people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based on this
ruling. The sages bring a young bull as an Olah and a goat as a Chatas on
behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied on
the Beis Din ha'Gadol. The goats are called Se'irei Avodas Kochavim (RAMBAM
Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b) The blood of the goats was sprinkled in the Heichal on the Paroches and
the Mizbach ha'Zahav. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) was
poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach. The remains of
the goats were burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Bamidbar 15:22-
*6*) [line 16] GEZEIRAH MISHUM CHATAS SHE'MESU BE'ALEHA - that is, perhaps
the Kohen Gadol who served last year will die during the year, and the
people will not realize that now that he has died his Par may no longer be
used (since it is a Chatas she'Mesu be'Aleha) - RASHI. Alternatively,
TOSFOS suggests that we are afraid that any one of the Kohanim who lived in
the previous year will pass away during the year, and since the Par is
Mechaper on *all* of the Kohanim, it is similar to a Chatas she'Mesu