ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafSukah 28
(a) Some say that Rebbi Eliezer was able to answer *twelve* of the thirty
questions that they asked him about Sukah in the upper Galilee. According to
others - he was able to answer *eighteen*.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer was always the first in the Beis Hamedrash, he never slept
there, and he never leave anyone in the Beis-Hamedrash when he departed -
neither did he ever speak idle chatter, or transmit anything that he had not
learned from his Rebbes.
(c) He learn these things from his Rebbe, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai.
(a) He also learned from Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai, not to walk four Amos
without Torah and Tefilin, not to think Torah in unclean alleyways and never
to sit silent (but always to be learning - verbally) - he also learned from
him to be the one to open the door for his disciples and never to announce
that it was time to stop learning Torah (except on Erev Pesach (when it is a
Mitzvah to prepare the Korban Pesach and to begin the Seder early [so that
the children should remain awake as long as possible]) and on Erev Yom Kipur
(when it is a Mitzvah to eat in preparation of the fast).
(b) Thirty of Hillel's eighty disciples were worthy that the sun stop for
them in the sky, like Moshe Rabeinu - thirty, that the sun stop for them in
the sky like Yehoshua bin Nun, and twenty, in between.
1. The greatest of them all was Yonasan ben Uziel.
2. The smallest, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai.
(a) There doesn't seem to be much that Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai did not
know: He knew Tenach, Mishnah and Agados (Medrashim) in their entirety. The
meaning of ...
The above describes the greatness of Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai. Yonasan ben
Uziel was even greater, inasmuch as, in addition to all the above - when he
studied Torah, the angels would come to listen, and any bird that flew past
would get burned from their fire.
1. ... Gemara - is the understanding of the sayings of the earlier Tana'im
by the later ones (even though the era of the Gemara per se had not yet even
(b) He knew all the Kal va'Chomers, the Gezeiros Shavos and Gematri'os (cum
Notrikuns - acronyms). 'Tekufos' - is the reckoning of the movement of the
sun and the moon, for the purpose of working out Rosh Chodesh and the
formation of leap years.
2. ... Halachos - is Halachos le'Moshe mi'Sinai.
3. ... 'Dikdukei Torah' - extra letters (like the extra 'Hey' in "ha'Ezrach"
that we discussed on the previous Daf), which come either to include or to
exclude, depending on the context.
4. ... 'Dikdukei Sofrim' - the Rabbinical decrees that Chazal issued, to
prevent us from transgressing Torah laws.
(c) He knew the speech of the angels and of the demons (i.e. he had the
power to make them swear to him - and do his bidding). And he could tell the
future from the movement of the branches and the leaves of a palm tree (on
days when the wind was not blowing). 'Mishlos Kovsin' and 'Mishlos
Shu'alim' - are words of reprimand couched in parables of launderers or
1. 'Davar Gadol' - means 'Ma'aseh Merkavah' (that Yechezkel saw, and that
serves as the basis of Kabalah).
2. 'Davar Katan' - the 'Havayos de'Abaye ve'Rava' (i.e. all the She'eilos
asked by the Amora'im, which had already been asked by the Tana'im, but had
been forgotten by then).
(a) We have already learned that Beis Shamai disqualifies a Sukah, if the
table from which one is eating is inside the house (i.e. outside the Sukah).
To prove that it is nevertheless Kasher, Beis Hillel cite the episode when
the elders of Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel went to visit Rebbi Yochanan
ha'Choranis on Sukos, and although they found him sitting with most of him
in the Sukah, but with his table in the house, they said nothing.
(b) Not true, countered Beis Shamai! in fact - they said to him that if that
was the way that he always ate his meals in the Sukah, then he had never
observed the Mitzvah of Sukah in his life!
(a) Women, slaves and children are Patur from Sukah - the latter until he is
no longer tied to his mother's apron strings.
(b) The Tana of the Beraisa learns from the Pasuk in Emor ...
(c) According to this, the word "Ezrach" (without the 'Hey') incorporates
- ... "Kol *ha'Ezrach*" - that women are exempt from Sukah.
- ... "Kol" - that children are Chayav.
(d) Regarding 'Inuy' on Yom Kipur, we *include* women from the word
"ha'Ezrach" - implying that "Ezrach" (without the 'Hey') incorporates men
(a) To answer the above Kashya, we initially explain that one of the two
cases is literal, and the other, a Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai, whereas the
Pasuk quoted by the Beraisa is only an Asmachta. Besides being in a doubt as
to which is which - the Gemara asks why we need a Pasuk at all to exempt
women from Sukah, or to include them in the Mitzvah of Inuy on Yom Kipur
(for reasons that we shall now clarify).
(b) It is obvious ...
1. ... that women are Patur from Sukah - because it is a 'Mitzvas Asei
she'ha'Zeman Geramah' (a positive time-bound Mitzvah, from which women are
generally exempt anyway).
2. ... that they are Chayav Inuy on Yom Kipur - because of Rav Yehudah Amar
Rav, who derives from the Pasuk in Bamidbar (with regard to the obligations
of someone who is Mo'el in Hekdesh) "Ish O Ishah ... ", that women share the
same obligations as men when it comes to La'avin.
(a) Abaye concludes that the word 'Ezrach' implies only men, the 'Hey' in
"ha'Ezrach" would normally *include* women (as indeed it does by Inuy on Yom
Kipur - see d.). Nevertheless, we need a 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai' to
exempt women from Sukah (despite the fact that it is a positive time-bound
Mitzvah) - because, says Abaye, we would have obligated women on account of
the Derashah "Teishvu" - 'ke'Ein Taduru', a man together with his wife, in
the same way as they live in the house.
(b) Rava agrees with Abaye in principle, though *he* learns that women would
otherwise be Chayav Sukah - from the 'Gezeirah Shavah' "Chamishah-Asar"
"Chamishah-Asar" from Matzah (where we already know that women are Chayav).
(c) Now that we have a 'Halachah ... ' to exempt women from Sukah - we learn
from the 'Hey' of "ha'Ezrach" to include converts in the Mitzvah of Sukah
(whom we would otherwise have exempted because the Torah writes
'be'Yisrael", which normally comes to preclude converts).
(d) In spite of the Derashah of Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, which includes women
in the Din of Inuy on Yom Kipur, we need the extra 'Hey' in "ha'Ezrach" - to
obligate them, not in Inuy *on Yom Kipur itself*, but on *Tosefes* Yom Kipur
(the few minutes that one is obligated to add to the Kedushah of Yom Kipur,
which is precluded even from the La'av of Yom Kipur, and is no more than an
(a) The Beraisa, which includes children in the Mitzvah of Sukah from "Kol"
- refers to children who *have* reached the age of Chinuch; whereas our
Mishnah, which exempts them - speaks about children who have *not*.
(b) The obligation for a child who has reached the age of Chinuch to observe
Mitzvos is only *mi'de'Rabbanan* - and the Pasuk, quoted by the Tana of the
Beraisa, is only an Asmachta.
(c) Rebbi Yanai defines a child who no longer needs his mother, as one who
does not need his mother to wipe him clean - Resh Lakish, as one who does
not call out 'Mummy'! when he wakes up.
(d) Not every child who calls 'Mummy' when he wakes up, is Patur from Sukah
- but one who calls 'Mummy'! persistently, is.
(a) When Shamai ha'Zaken's daughter-in-law gave birth - he broke a hole in
the ceiling over her bed and filled it with S'chach (presumably there were
less than four Amos from the edge of the hole to the wall, at least on three
(b) The Mishnah brings an illustration which contradicts what it just taught
(i.e. that a young baby who needs his mother is Patur from Sukah).
Consequently, we need to add to the Tana Kama's words: 've'Shamai Machmir' -
followed by the story of the elders of Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel.
(a) Throughout the seven days of Sukos, a person should make his Sukah Ke'va
and his house Arai - by taking all his nicer crockery and cloths etc. up
into the Sukah (the Tana always speaks of the Sukah as being higher than the
house, because they used to build their Sukos on the rooftops),
(b) One is obligated to eat, drink and sleep in the Sukah - and to perform
all one's other occupations there too e.g. walking around (which one would
normally have done in the house) and learning.
(c) If it rains, one is exempt from the Mitzvah - provided the rain is
spoiling his food.
(d) On Sukos (in Eretz Yisrael), rain is considered a bad omen - Chazal
compared it to a slave who was diluting wine for his master, and he poured
out the water into his face (this will be explained later).
(a) The Beraisa (which obligates even the study of *Gemara* in the *Sukah*)
- is referring to the *initial* review (which requires little
concentration); Rava (who maintains that, whereas the study of *Tenach and
Mishnah* should be performed in the *Sukah*, one may study *Gemara* in the
*house*) - to the *second* time that one reviews it, which entails a deeper
understanding of the subject-matter.
(b) We prove this from Rava bar Chama and his study-partners - who would
quickly review together what they had just learned in front of their Rebbe,
Rav Chisda, before studying it again in depth, each one on his own.