POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Shevuos 14
1) WHAT ATONES FOR THE KOHANIM?
(a) Answer #2 (Abaye): The Beraisa can be R. Yehudah, it
asked as follows:
***** PEREK YEDI'OS HA'TUM'AH *****
1. Question: We should say that the bull does not atone
for them for Tum'ah of the Mikdash or Kodshim, and
nothing would atone for them for Tum'ah!
(b) Question: What could one ask on the first answer, that
forced the Tana to give an alternative answer?
2. Answer #1: "Yp v'Al ha'Kohanim" - this proves that
they get atonement for other transgressions;
i. Since they get atonement for other
transgressions, presumably they also get
atonement for Tum'ah.
3. Answer #2: Alternatively, we can learn from "Beis
Aharon Borechu Es Hash-m".
ii. It is more reasonable to say that they get
atonement through the Kohen Gadol's bull, for
it atones for more than it says, it also atones
iii. We do not find that the inner goat atones for
more than Yisraelim.
(c) Answer: One might have asked, the Torah says (only)
"Beiso" - therefore, he shows that all Kohanim are called
(d) Question: (Above, we learned from "La'Am" that the inner
goat does not atone for Kohanim - but) "La'Am" is needed
to teach that the congregation pays for it!
(e) Answer: That is learned from "Ume'Es Adas Benei Yisrael".
(f) Question: (Above, we thought to learn from "Asher Lo"
that the bull does not atone for Kohanim - but) "Asher
Lo" is needed to as follows!
1. (Beraisa): The Kohen Gadol pays for the bull
himself, not the congregation;
(g) Answer: The Tana was bothered: just as the bull does not
atone for the congregation, because they do not pay for
it, it should not atone for Kohanim, for also they do not
pay for it!
i. Suggestion: Perhaps the congregation does not
pay, because it does not atone for them, but
Kohanim may pay, for it atones for them!
ii. Rejection: "Asher Lo".
iii. Suggestion: Perhaps the Kohanim should not pay,
but if they did, it is Kosher!
iv. Rejection: "Asher Lo" - the Torah repeats this
to teach that even b'Diavad, it is invalid.
1. He answered, Kohanim are called Beiso.
(h) Question: According to R. Shimon, we understand why the
Torah teaches about two confessions (over the bull) and
the (sprinkling of its) blood - these atone for the
Kohanim for the three atonements Yisraelim get from the
inner and outer goats and the goat that is sent;
1. But according to R. Yehudah, the goat that is sent
also atones for Kohanim, one confession and the
blood should suffice!
(i) Answer: The extra confession is to atone for himself
before he atones for the Kohanim;
1. (Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): It is proper
that the one making atonement for others should
already have atonement himself.
2) "YEDI'OS" OF "TUM'AH"
(a) (Mishnah): There are two primary Yedi'os (awarenesses) of
Tum'ah, there are four in all:
1. He knew that he became Tamei, then forgot and
knowingly ate Kodshim;
(b) The same law applies to one who enters the Azarah
(Chatzer) of the Mikdash, or a (valid) addition to it;
2. He knew that he became Tamei, then forgot (that this
meat is) Kodesh and ate it;
3. He forgot the Tum'ah and the Kodesh, and after
eating it he found out - in all these cases, he
brings an Oleh v'Yored.
4. He knew that he became Tamei, then forgot and
knowingly entered the Mikdash;
5. He knew that he became Tamei, then forgot the (place
of the) Mikdash and entered;
6. He forgot the Tum'ah and the Mikdash, and after he
left he found out - in all these cases, he brings an
1. The following are required to add on to Yerushalayim
or the Azarah: a king, a prophet, the Urim v'Tumim,
the great Sanhedrin of 71, two loaves of a Todah
(thanksgiving offering), singing; Beis Din walks,
the loaves are after them, and all of Yisrael are
3) IGNORANCE OF THE LAWS
2. The inner loaf is eaten, the outer loaf is burned.
(c) If a person became Tamei in the Azarah, then forgot the
Tum'ah but remembered (that he was in) the Azarah; or, if
he remembered that he was Tamei, but forgot the Azarah;
or, he forgot both:
3. If one enters an addition that was not made with all
this, he is exempt.
1. If he bowed (before leaving), or delayed the time
needed to bow, or did not leave on the shortest
path, he is liable;
(d) This is a Mitzvas Ase (that he must leave on the shortest
path), the sacrifices for a mistaken ruling of the great
Sanhedrin (which caused most of Yisrael to transgress a
Mitzvah involving Kares) do not apply to it.
2. If he left on the shortest path, he is exempt.
(e) There is a Mitzvas Ase regarding Nidah to which the
sacrifices for a mistaken ruling of the great Sanhedrin
1. If a woman told her husband during relations that
she felt a flow of blood which makes her a Nidah, if
he withdraws the Ever (while it is still in
erection), he is liable to Kares, because
withdrawing it is pleasurable, just as inserting it;
(f) R. Eliezer says, "Sheretz Tamei v'Nelam" - this teaches
that he brings a sacrifice only if he forgot the Tum'ah,
not if he forgot the Mikdash;
2. (Rather, he must not withdraw it until the erection
(g) R. Akiva says "V'Nelam Mimenu v'Hu Tamei" - he brings a
sacrifice only if he forgot the Tum'ah, not if he forgot
the Mikdash. (The Gemara will explain what they argue
(h) R. Yishmael says, it says 'v'Ne'elam' twice, to obligate
in both cases, i.e. forgetting the Tum'ah or the Mikdash.
(i) (Gemara - Rav Papa) Question: Why does the Mishnah say
that there are four Yedi'os in all, really there are six:
1. Yedi'ah of the Tum'ah at the beginning and at the
(j) Answer (Rav Papa): Really, there are eight Yedi'os;
2. Yedi'ah of the Kodesh at the beginning and at the
3. Yedi'ah of the Mikdash at the beginning and at the
4. Question: Why didn't Rav Papa say that there are
i. Each of the two Yedi'os of Tum'ah is really two
cases - when he later ate Kodshim, or entered
5. Answer: Both are considered a Yedi'ah of Tum'ah, we
do not distinguish them.
1. Version #1: The Tana only counts the four Yedi'os at
the end, for these Yedi'os cause him to bring a
2. Version #2: The Tana only counts the four Yedi'os at
the beginning, for these are special to Tum'ah in
the Mikdash or with Kodshim;
i. Regarding other sacrifices, a person is liable
even if he only had Yedi'ah at the end.
(a) Question (Rav Papa): What is the law if he forgot the
laws of Tum'ah?
1. Question: What is the case?
(b) This question is not resolved.
i. If he does not know which rodents are Metamei
and which are not - even children learn this,
surely this lack of Yedi'ah does not exempt
2. Answer: Rather, he knows which rodents are Metamei;
he did not know whether a lentil's worth of a rodent
i. Do we say that knowing that rodents are Metamei
is considered Yedi'ah?
ii. Or - since he did not know whether a lentil's
worth is Metamei, it is not Yedi'ah?
(c) Question (R. Yirmeyah): Someone from Bavel, who never
knew where the Mikdash is (and entered while Tamei) -
what is the law?
1. Question: According to whom does he ask?
(d) This question is not resolved.
i. If according to R. Akiva, who says that one
brings a sacrifice only if he knew at the
beginning - but R. Akiva does not obligate for
forgetting the place of the Mikdash!
2. Answer: He asks according to Rebbi, who says that
one brings a sacrifice only if he knew at the
beginning, and obligates for forgetting the place of
ii. If according to R. Yishmael, who says that one
brings a sacrifice for forgetting the place of
the Mikdash - but R. Yishmael obligated even if
he did not know at the beginning (clearly, he
i. Rebbi also holds that having once learned is
considered Yedi'ah (at the beginning).
3. Do we say that knowing that there is a Mikdash is
4. Or - since he did not where it is, it is not