THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question about the Daf
1) THE WEAVER'S UTENSILS
QUESTION: Rav Yehudah says in the name of Shmuel that the rods of a weaver
may be handled and moved on Shabbos. Rav Yehudah was in doubt whether one
may also move the beams of the loom (which hold the warp threads). The
Gemara concludes that Shmuel also permitted moving the beams of the loom.
RASHI (DH Mutar l'Taltelan) explains that handling the rods of the weaver
is permitted because they are not utensils which are designated for a
forbidden labor ("Melachtan l'Isur"). He explains (DH Mahu) that the reason
Rav Yehudah doubted whether one may handle the beams of the loom is because
perhaps they are objects which *are* designated for a forbidden labor.
Rashi points out that if the weaver is strict not to use the utensil for
any other purpose, then it is considered an object designated for a
forbidden labor. But if the weaver does not care if someone uses it for
another purpose, it is not considered designated for a forbidden labor.
(a) Rashi's explanation is difficult to understand. First, even if the
weaver allows these utensils to be used for other purposes, their *primary
use* is for weaving, which is a forbidden labor. Therefore, these utensils
should still be considered to be utensils designated for a forbidden labor,
regardless of whether the weaver *also* uses it for other purposes! (REBBI
ANSWER: It seems that when Rashi uses the term "designated for a forbidden
labor," he is not referring to the normal concept of utensils that are used
for a Melachah that is Asur (Kle she'Melachto l'Isur). Rather, Rashi is
referring to what the Gemara later (123a) describes as a utensil which is
Muktzah due to its precious value ("Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis"), which a
person uses exclusively for the purpose for which it was made and he is
careful not to use it for any other purpose. Since the owner designates a
place to store the utensil so that it should not become dirty or ruined,
and he actively sets it aside from being used on Shabbos, it becomes
Muktzah due to its precious value. *This* is the type of utensil which
Rashi is describing when he says "Melachtan l'Isur;" that is, a utensil
which a person designated to use *only for a prohibited purpose*. Such a
utensil becomes Muktzah according to everyone (even Rebbi Shimon), and it
may not be moved even l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo.
(b) Second, the Gemara says that one is allowed to move these items. Rashi
explains that they may be moved because they are not utensils designated
for a forbidden labor. But even if they were designated for a forbidden
labor, they should still be permitted to be moved if one needs to use them
for a permitted purpose or if one needs the place on which they are
standing ("l'Tzorech Gufan u'Mekoman")! Shmuel should have said, then, that
these items are allowed to be moved from the sun into the shade, since the
weaver is not strict about using them for other purposes!
When Rashi here says that the weaver is not particular about using his rods
for other purposes and they are "not designated for a forbidden labor," he
does not mean that they are not a *Kli sh'Melachto l'Isur*. Rather, Rashi
means that we might have thought that the item no longer has any use
whatsoever, since it was set aside not to be used at all on Shabbos. This
type of Muktzah may not be moved *at all*.
Rashi uses the term "Kli she'Melachto l'Isur" to refer to a utensil that is
set aside not to be used for *any* purpose on Shabbos in other Gemaras as
well. The Gemara later (123a) discusses items which are Muktzah due to
their precious value, because they are set aside from being used for any
purpose. Rashi says that a slaughterer's cutting board and a mortar also
fall into this category. However, Rashi earlier (81a, DH Madochah Ketanah)
says that a mortar is a *utensil designated for a forbidden labor* ("Kli
she'Melachto l'Isur"). Apparently, Rashi uses the term "Kli she'Melachto
l'Isur" to refer to a utensil which was set aside from being used for *any*
purpose on Shabbos.
2) THE PROPER WAY TO WALK ON SHABBOS
QUESTION: The Beraisa teaches that one should not walk on Shabbos the same
way one walks during the week. The Gemara asks what type of walking is
permitted during the week but is not permitted on Shabbos. The Gemara
answers by citing a dialogue between Rebbi and Rebbi Yishmael bar Rebbi
Yosi, who were discussing whether it is permitted to walk Pesi'ah Gasah
(with large steps) on Shabbos. When Rebbi asked whether one may walk
Pesi'ah Gasah on Shabbos, Rebbi Yishmael responded that it is not only
forbidden on Shabbos, but it is also forbidden during the week, because
Pesi'ah Gasah takes away 1/500th of a person's eyesight.
How does the Gemara answer its original question of what form of walking is
permitted during the week but prohibited on Shabbos? The Gemara concludes
that it is prohibited to walk Pesi'ah Gasah even during the week, so there
is no difference between Shabbos and the weekdays!
(a) Rebbi Yishmael bar Rebbi Yosi said that the reason one may not walk
Pesi'ah Gasah during the week is because it is dangerous to one's health;
there is no prohibition or enactment per se forbidding it. On Shabbos,
though, there is an *enactment* which prohibits walking Pesi'ah Gasah, in
addition to the health risk that it poses. The prohibition is from Divrei
Kabalah as derived from the verse in Yeshayah. (MAHARSHA)
(b) The SEFAS EMES explains that when Rebbi questioned whether Pesi'ah
Gasah is permitted on Shabbos, he was not referring to the normal form of
Pesi'ah Gasah; walking with large steps are certainly forbidden on Shabbos
as well as during the week. Rather, he was asking whether *normal-sized*
steps are permissible on Shabbos or must one walk with *smaller than usual*
steps on Shabbos. When the Beraisa says that one should walk differently on
Shabbos, it meant that one should take smaller steps than one takes during
the week. Rebbi Yishmael bar Rebbi Yosi apparently misunderstood Rebbi's
question and thought that he was referring to taking larger than normal
steps on Shabbos, and that is why he responded that even during the week
such steps are prohibited.
This may be the meaning of the phrase, "Pos'im Bo Pesi'ah Ketanah" -- "We
walk on [Shabbos] with small steps," which we say in the Shabbos song, "Kol
Mekadesh Shevi'i." On Shabbos we must walk differently than we walk during
the week, and we must take smaller steps than usual (like Rebbi's ruling).
(c) TOSFOS in Ta'anis (10b, DH Pesi'ah Gasah) concludes that it is only the
first step of Pesi'ah Gasah that takes away a fraction of one's eyesight.
The subsequent steps have no effect. If so, the Gemara here may be saying
that even after one has already walked one Pesi'ah Gasah, it is still
prohibited to walk another Pesi'ah Gasah on Shabbos even though it is no
longer harmful to one's eyesight. Rebbi Yishmael bar Rebbi Yosi is merely
saying that one should not be brought to a situation in which it is
permissible to walk Pesi'ah Gasah in the first place; that is, one should
be careful not to take the first step of Pesi'ah Gasah, ever.