THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) THE MELACHAH OF "KOTESH" (POUNDING)
QUESTIONS: RASHI (DH sh'Ken Ani) explains that the Melachah of Kotesh,
pounding, was done in the Mishkan and it is an Av Melachah. However, it is
not counted in the Mishnah, explains Rashi, because the Mishnah counts
those labors involved in "Sidura d'Pas" (making bread), and pounding is not
considered an established part of Sidura d'Pas because poor people do not
do it when they make their bread. Nevertheless, "it is an Av Melachah,
included in the Melachah of Dash (threshing)."
2) HALACHAH: THE MELACHAH OF "BORER"
(a) Rashi contradicts himself. He first writes that Kotesh is an Av
Melachah, and then he writes that it is included in Dash!
ANSWER: The RAMBAN cites Rashi as saying that Kotesh is not considered a
significant labor since a poor person does not do it, and it is included in
Dash (as we suggested in (d) above). Perhaps this is what Rashi, even in
the text that we have, intends to say. When he says that Kotesh is an Av
Melachah, he means to say only that it is in the category of forbidden
Melachah on Shabbos for which one will be Chayav, but not that it is its
own primary category of Melachah. (This is consistent with Rashi elsewhere.
It is evident in numerous places that Rashi uses the term "Av Melachah" to
refer not to a primary category, but to *any* form of labor for which one
is Chayav on Shabbos, including a Toldah. See Insights 18:1). This answer
questions (a), (b), and (d).
(b) Rashi implies that there are forty Av Melachos! How can this be, when
we see clearly from our Mishnah that there are no more than thirty-nine
Melachos (see Gemara, 75b, that proves that there are the only 39 Melachos
according to our Mishnah)?
(c) Why does Rashi have to mention "Sidura d'Pas" at all? The Gemara says
that a poor person does not pound his bread, and therefore Kotesh is not in
the Mishnah either because it is not considered a significant labor, or
because it was not done in the Mishkan. Why does Rashi have to mention that
it was not part of Sidura d'Pas? (MAHARSHA AND MAHARAM)
(d) Why does Rashi have to say that Kotesh *is* an Av Melachah but is not
*counted* in the Mishnah? He should have said that since a poor person does
not do Ketishah, it is not an Av Melachah altogether!
Concerning the third question (c), why Rashi mentions Sidura d'Pas, it must
be that Rashi understands the Gemara like the Ramban: since a poor person
does not do Ketishah, it is not considered a significant Melachah. Rashi,
however, was bothered by Tosfos' question. Tosfos asks that Ketishah was
performed in the Mishkan for the preparation of the *dyes*, and not merely
to make bread. Why not regard it as an Av because it was needed for making
dyes. Tosfos answers that a poor person even makes his *dyes* without
pounding them. Rashi was bothered why the Gemara specifically mentions the
*bread* of a poor person, and not his *dyes*.
To that he answers that since all of the Melachos listed in the first part
of the Mishnah are referring to Sidura d'Pas, and the Gemara is now
discussing Kotesh in the context of Borer and other bread-related Melachos,
it must be that the Kotesh under discussion is that which is used in Sidura
d'Pas. "Sidura d'Pas" has nothing to do with the reason why Kotesh is not
mentioned in the Mishnah. Rashi is merely explaining why the Gemara focuses
on bread ("since a poor person eats his *bread* without Ketishah") and does
not mention the dyes. (M. Kornfeld -- see SEFAS EMES for a different
OPINIONS: The Gemara cites a Beraisa that first states that Borer is
permitted on Shabbos, and then states that Borer is forbidden and one is
Chayav a Chatas for it. Five different resolutions are suggested in the
Gemara to explain what the Beraisa means when it says that it is permitted
to do Borer:
(a) It is permitted when done for use *on that day*
The Gemara unconditionally rejects the first two answers. Doing Borer for
that day is forbidden and one is Chayav a Chatas, and "Chatzi Shi'ur" is
also forbidden mid'Oraisa (although one is not Chayav a Chatas). Which of
the other answers are accepted? What is the Halachah?
(b) It is permitted when only *half the Shi'ur* is separated
(c) It is permitted when done *by hand* ("b'Yad")
(d) It is permitted when one separates a *food* item from a *non-edible* item ("Ochel m'Toch Pesoles")
(e) It is permitted when done for immediate use ("l'Altar")
(a) TOSFOS (DH v'ha'Tanya) and the ROSH cite RABEINU CHANANEL, who says
that all three of the latter conditions must be fulfilled in order for it
to be permissible to do Borer on Shabbos (or more exactly, in order for
this act not to be one of Borer).
HALACHAH: The Halachah follows the opinion of Rabeinu Chananel, as the
SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 319) writes, and three conditions are required -- b'Yad,
l'Altar, and Ochel m'Toch Pesoles.
(b) RASHI (DH v'ha'Tanya) appears to say that if it is done *immediately*,
it is permissible, even when done with an instrument made for separating
(such as Napah u'Kevarah).
The REMA explains, citing Rabeinu Chananel, that "l'Altar" refers to any
food being prepared for the meal that is about to come (even if it is not
going to be consumed immediately).