THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) TUM'AS SHERETZ IS "MERUBAH"
OPINIONS: The Gemara says that Tum'as Erev (Tum'as Sheretz) should apply to
additional objects to which Tum'as Mes does not apply because it is
"Merubah" -- it is "more." What does this mean?
2) TUM'AH AND HORSETAIL HAIRS
(a) RASHI explains that there are many *types of Tum'os* that last until
the evening (Sheretz, Shichvas Zera, Maga Tum'as Mes, etc.), whereas only
Tum'as Mes lasts seven days.
(b) RABEINU CHANANEL says that there are eight *types of Sheratzim* to
which Tum'as Sheretz applies, while there is only one type of Mes.
(c) RASHBA cites RAV HAI GA'ON who says that Tum'as Sheretz is simply *more
common*, since it is much more prevalent to become Tamei from a Sheretz
than from a Mes.
QUESTION: The Gemara says that even horsetail hairs can become Tamei, and
not only wool. The Gemara points out, however, that the verse from which we
learn that horsetail hairs can become Tamei is written with regard to
*Tum'as Sheretz*. We cannot learn that horsetail hairs can become Tamei
with *Tum'as Mes* from the fact that they can become Tamei with Tum'as
Sheretz, because Tum'as Sheretz is Metamei more objects since its Tum'ah is
"Merubah" (see previous Insight).
The Gemara then teaches that there is a Gezeirah Shavah that compares
Tum'as Mes to Tum'as Sheretz in order to teach that a Mes will also be
Metamei horsetail hairs. Then the Gemara adds that this Gezeirah Shavah is
"Mufnah" ("open"), because were it not Mufnah, it would not be clear that a
Mes is Metamai horsetail hairs, but only a Sheretz can be Metamei horsetail
hairs because Tum'as Sheretz is more severe in that it is Metamei
b'k'Adashah (even a small amount of Sheretz, the size of a lentil, can be
Why does the Gemara give a new reason why Tum'as Sheretz is more severe
than Tum'as Mes? The Gemara earlier said that Tum'as Sheretz is *Merubah*,
and that is why Tum'as Mes cannot be learned from Tum'as Sheretz. But now,
the Gemara says that Tum'as Mes cannot be learned from Tum'as Sheretz
because Tum'as Sheretz is Metamai b'k'Adashah. Why does the Gemara give two
(a) The MAHARSHA explains that there is a difference between the two
reasons that the Gemara gives concerning why the Halachos of Tum'as Mes
cannot be learned from Tum'as Sheretz. The reason that says that Tum'as
Sheretz is Metamei b'k'Adashah is stronger than the reason that says that
Tum'as Sheretz is more common, because the reason of Metamei b'k'Adashah
shows both that Tum'as Sheretz is more *common*, and it is more *severe*.
Since the Gemara at this stage says that there is a Gezeirah Shavah, which
is a strong Limud (and not a Binyan Av, which is weaker), the Gemara wanted
to ask a stronger question on that Limud.
We might ask on the Maharsha's answer that if so, (1) why did the Gemara
earlier not ask this stronger question, but instead asked the weaker
question, and (2) the Gemara has not yet concluded that the Limud is a
Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufnah, and thus the Limud at this stage should be
no stronger than a Binyan Av!
(b) The TOSFOS HA'ROSH explains that the previous reason that Tum'as Mes
cannot be learned from Tum'as Sheretz (because Tum'as Sheretz is Merubah)
was not the real reason. Rather, the real reason is because Tum'as Sheretz
is Metamai b'k'Adashah. The Gemara earlier was not relying on that reason,
but was relying on the reason yet to come in the Gemara. (A Beraisa does
not always reveal its true reasoning, but it keeps it hidden. The Gemara
that explains the Beraisa tells us the true reasoning of the Beraisa.)
3) HALACHAH: WOMEN WEARING WIGS
OPINIONS: The Mishnah says that a woman may go out on into Reshus ha'Rabim
on Shabbos with hair tied around her hair, whether it is her own hair that
is tied on or whether it is hair from someone else or from an animal.
4) HALACHAH: WOMEN WEARING JEWELRY AND OTHER ORNAMENTS ON SHABBOS
Similarly, says the Mishnah, a woman may go into a Chatzer (but not into
Reshus ha'Rabim) while wearing a Pe'ah Nachris (a wig). Rashi (here and in
Erchin 7b) explains that the purpose of this wig is to give the appearance
that the woman has a lot of hair.
(a) The SHILTEI GIBORIM proves from here that a woman is normally allowed
to wear a wig in public, and that the Torah only requires her to cover the
hair that is attached to her head. He explains that the Mishnah must be
talking about married women, because the Gemara says that the reason she
may wear certain articles, such as the wig, in a Chatzer is in order that
she not become loathsome to her husband. This also shows that the wig is
not covered (because otherwise her husband would not be able to see it).
HALACHAH: The MAGEN AVRAHAM (OC 75:5) sides with the Shiltei Giborim and
permits wearing a wig. Today there are different practices among different
communities regarding wearing wigs.
(b) The BE'ER SHEVA (Teshuvah #18) quotes Rav Yehudah Katzenelenbogen who
explains that according to Rashi -- who said that the purpose of a wig is
to give the appearance that she has more hair -- it must be that she wears
the wig the same way other women wear their natural hair, that is, covered.
One may ask, what is the point of wearing a wig that is covered if even her
husband cannot see her hair? The answer is that the wig gives her hair a
fuller look from beneath the kerchief. If the purpose of the wig is to
stuff the kerchief, why does the woman not simply stuff up her kerchief
with wool? He answers that sometimes the kerchief slips from its place and
the hair under it is visible, and it would be very embarrassing for wool to
show up there instead of hair.
Second, Rav Yehudah Katzenelenbogen says that even if the Shiltei Giborim
is correct that the wig is worn uncovered, perhaps it is only worn
uncovered in a Chatzer (which is what the Mishnah is talking about) which
very few people enter. In such a Chatzer where people do not commonly walk,
it is permitted for a woman to go even with her natural hair uncovered,
m'Ikar ha'Din. (NOTE: This explanation seems a bit forced, for the Rishonim
make it clear that a Pe'ah Nachris cannot be worn in Reshus ha'Rabim *only*
because of the Isur Tiltul, see Tosfos and Rishonim 57b DH Iy -M. Kornfeld)
Third, even if the Mishnah is talking about a Chatzer where many people do
commonly walk, it is only talking about the laws of Shabbos, and is not
discussing the laws of modesty and Das Yehudis. That is, from the
perspective of the laws of Shabbos, she may go into a Chatzer with an
uncovered wig (but from the perspective of the laws of Das Yehudis, she may
not). He points out that this is similar to what the Rosh wrote in the
beginning of Maseches Shabbos, at the end of 1:1, with regard to Lifnei
Iver. (This also seems forced, since the *Rabanan* permitted the woman to
wear the Pe'ah Nachris in order that she should not become loathsome to her
husband, implying that it is a proper thing for a woman to do.)
We may suggest another reason why a woman wears a covered Pe'ah Nachris.
The main purpose of the Pe'ah Nachris may be to appeal to her husband when
in the house, where it is permitted to leave her hair uncovered. However,
since it was complicated to put on and remove the wig of the Gemara (which
may have not been as convenient to remove as today's wigs), the woman would
often leave it on even in Reshus ha'Rabim, and cover it so as not to stand
In any case, Rav Katzenelenbogen concludes that wearing an uncovered wig is
OPINIONS: The Mishnah here and earlier lists a number of decorative objects
with which a woman may not go out into Reshus ha'Rabim (or, with most
objects, even into a Chatzer) on Shabbos out of fear that she may carry
them four Amos in Reshus ha'Rabim.
The Gemara quotes Rav, who rules like our Mishnah. The Gemara then cites
another Tana from a Beraisa, Rebbi Anani bar Sason in the name of Rebbi
Yishmael bar Rebbi Yosi, who permits going into a Chatzer with all of the
things listed in the Mishnah. What is the Halachah?
There are five opinions:
(a) The RAMBAN and RASHBA rule like the Mishnah, that it is prohibited to
wear these items into a Chatzer. They add that a house is no different than
a Chatzer, and thus it is prohibited for women to wear these items even
within a house. They may, however, *carry* these items in a house or
Chatzer, without wearing them.
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 303:18) cites the first four opinions, and
the REMA adds the fifth. The Shulchan Aruch also mentions the conclusion of
TOSFOS (DH Rebbi Anani) and the ROSH (6:10), who say that it is better
*not* to stop the women from wearing these items outside on Shabbos even if
it is prohibited, because it is unlikely that they will listen and it is
better that they transgress unknowingly than willfully.
(b) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 19:8) also rules like Rav, that it is
prohibited to wear these items into a Chatzer. However, he adds that it is
only prohibited to wear them in a Chatzer sh'Eino Me'ureves, a Chatzer that
needs an Eruv but does not have one. In a Chatzer Me'ureves (that has an
Eruv) or in a house, a woman *may* wear these items.
(c) The TUR (OC 303) quotes RABEINU TAM who says that the Halachah is like
Rav Anani, and it is permitted to wear these items even in a Chatzer that
has no Eruv.
(d) The SEFER HA'TERUMAH (Rabeinu Baruch) cited by Tosfos and the Tur rules
like Rav Anani and permits women to wear these items not only in a Chatzer
that has no Eruv, but even in a Karmelis. Although Rav Anani does not
mention Karmelis (implying that he forbids going into a Karmelis with these
items), that was only in those days, when there were places which were
Reshus ha'Rabim. In our day, though, there is no Reshus ha'Rabim, and
therefore it is permitted to wear jewelry even into a Karmelis. (Objects
that are actual burdens and are being carried may not be taken into a
Karmelis, of course. The Terumah only permits going out with those things
that a woman wears but might take off to show to her friends.) Therefore, a
woman may wear these items anywhere today.
(e) RABEINU SHIMSHON cited by Tosfos and the Tur suggests another reason
why women are permitted to walk out wearing jewelry today. In the days of
the Mishnah and Gemara, women used to show off their jewelry. Nowadays
(when women wear jewelry both on Shabbos and during the week) women do not
usually take off their jewelry to show off to each other, so it is
permitted to wear jewelry anywhere.
The ARUCH HA'SHULCHAN (303:22) adds that in our day, women are
refined ("Chashuvos") and consider it beneath their dignity to remove their
jewelry to show it off. Furthermore, in those days, the women did not go
out often, and on the rare occasion that they went out, they would wear all
their jewelry to show to their friends. Since women did not go to the
synagogue, there was a serious concern that they would take off their
jewelry in Reshus ha'Rabim to show to each other. In our day, the women go
out often and meet each other in their homes or in the synagogue, and thus
there is no fear that they will remove their jewelry in Reshus ha'Rabim to
show to each other.