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Shabbos 57


QUESTION: The Mishnah and Gemara enumerate various items with which a woman may not walk out into Reshus ha'Rabim on Shabbos, because she might take them off and carry them four Amos in Reshus ha'Rabim. She is only allowed to go out with jewelry that she never removes.

Why, then, is she allowed to go out with a coat or jacket? Perhaps she might take it off and walk four Amos while carrying it in Reshus ha'Rabim! (TOSFOS DH ba'Meh)


(a) TOSFOS answers that the Gezeirah only applies to small objects that a person often carries in their hand while walking. The main attire of a person, on the other hand, is usually not carried around; rather, one puts it on immediately before going anywhere and leaves it on.

(b) The R'I explains that the Gezeirah applies only to items that might be removed for a specific reason, such as to go to the Mikvah, or to show to a friend, or because it makes one dirty. If there is no reason for a person to want to remove a particular article of clothing, then there is no concern that he will do so. One is even allowed to intentionally take off such attire and put it back on in Reshus ha'Rabim, as long as he does not walk while holding it.


QUESTION: The Beraisa says that women may not go out into Reshus ha'Rabim with "Chavakim" around their necks. The Gemara explains that the Beraisa is referring to a "Ketala." RASHI (DH b'Ketala Askinan) explains that a Ketala is a ribbon that holds a bib around a woman's neck, which is not decorative.

Why does Rashi explain that the Ketala is different from all other articles mentioned in the Mishnah, which *are* worn for beauty? Second, Rashi himself says later in the Perek (59b, DH Menakta) that a Ketala *is* worn for beauty, and that it has gold in it. Why does Rashi give two different explanations of what a "Ketala" is?


TOSFOS (DH Hacha b'Ketala) asks the following question. The Gemara concludes that the Ketala may not be worn outside on Shabbos because it is considered a Chatzitzah (separation) and therefore a woman may remove it if she goes to the Mikvah (similar to the strings that she wears in her hair, 57a). Why, then, asks Tosfos, is the Ketala not mentioned with the strings, in the *beginning* of the Mishnah, but with the ornaments that a woman wears for beauty, in the *end* of the Mishnah?

(a) Tosfos explains that the case in the Mishnah must be when the Ketala is fastened loosely. Thus, there is *no* problem of it being a separation if the woman immerses, but there *is* a problem that she might remove it to show off to her friend. The Beraisa, on the other hand, is referring to a Ketala that is fastened tightly around the neck. In such a case, there is *no* fear that the woman will take it off to show to her friend (because if she takes it off, she will no longer look affluent and attractively heavy), but rather there *is* a fear that since it is considered to be a separation, she might remove it to immerse in a Mikvah and carry it in Reshus ha'Rabim.

(b) RASHI is apparently proposing another answer to Tosfos' question. Rashi is explaining that there are two types of Ketala. One (59b) is ornamental and is tied tightly, to make the woman look more corpulent. The one in our Gemara is *not* an ornament, and therefore is *not* worn tightly (the RASHBA and RITVA and others offer similar explanations for Tosfos' question). (HAGAHOS RAV E. M. HA'LEVY HOROWITZ)

QUESTION: Rav Huna says that there are two types of Sarvitin that hang from a woman's Totefes at the side of her head. Poor women wear Sarvitin made of colored fabric. Rich women wear Sarvitin made from silver and gold. What is the purpose of describing the different types of Sarvitin that different women wear?


(a) TOSFOS HA'ROSH answers that the Gemara is teaching a stringency. The Gemara is teaching that it is forbidden to go out even with Sarvitin made from fabric if the woman wearing it is poor, because that is what she takes pride in and there is a concern that she will remove it to show her friend.

(b) The RITVA says that the Gemara is teaching a leniency. Only when rich women wear silver and gold Sarvitin, may they *not* go out with them. But if a rich woman wears Sarvitin of fabric, she may go out with them. Since they are not considered eloquent ornaments in her eyes, there is no fear that she will take them off to show them to her friend.

(c) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 19:6,10) mentions only Sarvitin of gold, and not of fabric. The MIRKEVES HA'MISHNAH suggests, based on a Yerushalmi, that perhaps Sarvitin made of fabric are permitted even for poor women to go out with, because they will not take them off to show their friends, since they are not such eloquent ornaments. Only Sarvitin made of gold will be forbidden. This is how the Rambam may have understood the Gemara -- the Gemara mentions Sarvitin of fabric to point out that we are *not* discussing such ornaments.

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