THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question about the Daf
1) "IF ONE TRANSGRESSED AND DID SHEHIYAH"
QUESTION: What is the Gemara asking when it says, "What [is the status of
the food] if one transgressed and did Shehiyah?" The Gemara just concluded
a lengthy discussion, answering that very question!
The Gemara said that if the food was not cooked yet, whether one purposely
left it on the stove or inadvertently left it there, it is forbidden
b'Di'eved. If the food was cooked, then Rebbi Meir permits it (even if it
was purposely left on the stove) and Rebbi Yehudah forbids it (if it is a
food that will become tastier as it gets more cooked -- "Mitz'tamek v'Yafeh
Lo"). The Halachah, we see, was clearly spelled out by the Gemara. What,
then, is the Gemara asking now?
(a) TOSFOS (DH Avar) explains that the Gemara is asking what the Halachah
would be according to Rebbi Yehudah, who says that cooked food that was
left on the stove is forbidden if it was Mitz'tamek v'Yafeh Lo. Does Rebbi
Yehudah forbid the food only if it was left on the stove on purpose but not
if it was inadvertently left there, or does he forbid the food even if it
was left there *inadvertently*? (Rebbi Yehudah did not specifically mention
that the food is prohibited even if it is left on the burner b'Shogeg,
perhaps he was discussing only a case where it was left there purposely.)
According to Tosfos, though, we have another question. The Gemara says that
if one *forgot* and left food on the stove, the Rabanan penalized him and
forbade the food. This Gezeirah was made after the time of Rebbi Yehudah.
If so, what difference does it make if Rebbi Yehudah permits the food if
one left it on the stove inadvertently; Rebbi Yehudah's opinion is
irrelevant since nowadays it is forbidden by the Gezeirah!
(1) TOSFOS answers that the Gemara was just curious what Rebbi Yehudah's
original opinion was, before the Gezeirah.
(b) RABEINU YONAH cited by the RASHBA and the RAMBAN says that the Sages
who asked the question "What [is the status of the food] if one
transgressed and did Shehiyah?" were unaware of the previously quoted
Beraisa, in which Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yehudah argue over that point. They
were asking what the Halachah is if one *purposely* left a fully cooked
dish on the stove which is Mitz'tamek v'Yafeh Lo -- did the Rabanan decree
that it is forbidden? (The Rashba says that this is also Rashi's
(2) TOSFOS ROSH explains that the Gezeirah forbidding the food that was
accidentally left on the stove is only on the person who forgot and left
the food there; to everyone else, the food might be permitted. The Gemara
is asking whether the food indeed is permitted to *everyone else* or not.
(3) The RA'AVAD cited by the RASHBA explains that there is a difference
between "forgetting" (Shochei'ach) the food on the stove and leaving the
food on the stove b'Shogeg. When he left it there b'Shogeg, we are lenient,
because he was completely unaware that it was Shabbos (or that it is
forbidden to do so on Shabbos) at that point. In the case of one who
*forgot*, however, he *was* aware that Shabbos was coming when he placed
the food on the stove, but he forgot to remove it before Shabbos came.
Therefore, the Rabanan were stringent and decreed that he may not eat the
(4) The RAMBAN adds that perhaps the penalty was made only for food that
was not *entirely* cooked. If it was entirely cooked, though, the Rabanan
did not prohibit it (because there is no concern that people will purposely
place a fully cooked dish on the stove and claim that they did so
inadvertently, merely to get the cooked dish a little tastier on Shabbos).
(c) TOSFOS HA'ROSH explains that the question of the Gemara is what the
Halachah would be if someone leaves food which gets tastier as it gets
drier on the stove, and that food is *already* as dry as it will get. Did
the Rabanan make their decree in such a case, or is it to be compared to
hot water, since leaving it on the stove did not improve its taste?
(d) The RITVA says that the Gemara is referring to a case where one removed
the pot from the stove *before* it had a chance to improve. Did the Rabanan
decree that the very act of placing it on the stove (when there is a chance
that it will improve) makes the food forbidden, even if in the end it does
not result in any improvement, or did they only decree that the food is
forbidden when it actually undergoes some improvement. (When the Gemara
attempts to answer the question from the case of "dried out eggs," it is
referring to a case where one removed the eggs from the stove before they
had a chance to become more dried out.)
2) OPINIONS: "CHAZARAH" EVEN ON SHABBOS
QUESTION: Rav Sheshes and Rav Oshiya say that one may return a pot of
cooked food to the stove (Chazarah) "even on Shabbos." What are they
adding? The concept of Chazarah is only relevant for Shabbos! When else
would there be a question whether one may return food to the stove?
(a) RASHI explains that the Gemara is teaching that even during Shabbos
*day* one may do Chazarah. We might have thought that Chazarah may be done
only at night, because when one removes the pot from the stove during the
day there is no indication that one's intention is to put it back on the
HALACHAH: It is best to be stringent like Tosfos and not put any food on a
stove whose coals are uncovered on Friday close to Shabbos, if there is not
enough time for the food to get hot by the time Shabbos arrives (REMA OC
(b) TOSFOS (36b, DH Beis Hillel) says that the prohibition of Chazarah when
the stove's coals are not cleared away applies *on Friday before Shabbos*.
If it is Friday and the food is cold and there is not enough time for it to
become hot before Shabbos, it is forbidden to put it back on the stove,
because one might try to stoke the coals to warm it up on Shabbos. (Even if
it is still warm, it might be forbidden to put it back if there is not
enough time for it to become warm *had it been* cold, because someone might
think that it is permissible to put it back on the stove when it is cold,
and he might forget and stoke the coals to make it warm.) According to
Tosfos, then, Beis Hillel means that one may do Chazarah not only on Friday
but even *on Shabbos* (which is what our Gemara is teaching here) when the
coals are covered. (Beis Hillel agrees, though, that if the coals are not
covered, then *even on Friday* it is prohibited to do Chazarah).
(c) The RAN explains that the last argument in the Mishnah between Beis
Shamai and Beis Hillel is an argument concerning the prohibition of doing
an action which will lead to Melachah being done by itself on Shabbos. Both
Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel here are consistent with their opinions
elsewhere. Beis Shamai requires that in order to place food on the stove
before Shabbos, there must be enough time for the food to become hot before
Shabbos (19b); the Melachah must begin before Shabbos, or else there is a
fear that people may think that it is permissible to do Melachah on Shabbos
(this is according to one opinion in Beis Shamai, and not the opinion that
Beis Shamai forbids Melachah before Shabbos because of Shevisas Keilim, see
the Gemara earlier, 18a). Here, Beis Shamai prohibits Chazarah *on Friday
right before Shabbos* (like Tosfos understood as well), when the food will
only become hot on Shabbos, so that people should not think that it is
permissible to heat up food on Shabbos (this reason for prohibiting
Chazarah on Friday is not like Tosfos' reason). Beis Hillel *permits*
Chazarah on Friday, because he does not hold that the Rabanan prohibited
actions before Shabbos that would cause Melachah to be done on Shabbos.
However, we might have thought that doing Chazarah *on Shabbos* is
prohibited according to everyone, even Beis Hillel, because it looks as if
one is cooking on Shabbos. Therefore the Gemara teaches that Beis Hillel
permits Chazarah even on Shabbos.