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Shabbos 36


QUESTION: The Gemara cites the opinions of Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon with regard to the Muktzah-status of a Shofar and of Chatzotzros. They argue whether one may handle Chatzotzros on Shabbos (for the sake of using it for a permissible purpose, or moving it in order to use the place where it is resting -- "le'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo"). They agree that one may handle the Shofar (le'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo).

The Shofar fits into the category of "Kli she'Melachto le'Isur" -- an instrument which is normally used to do something that is forbidden on Shabbos. Although such an object is Muktzah, it is permitted to handle it le'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo. If so, why should it be forbidden to handle the Chatzotzros, according to Rebbi Yehudah? They, too, are only a Kli she'Melachto le'Isur?

ANSWER: TOSFOS (DH Ha) explains that a Kli she'Melachto le'Isur that has *no* normal permissible use may not be moved, according to Rebbi Yehudah, even l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo. The reason is because a person puts it totally out of his mind since it has no permissible use. Conceptually, this kind of object is similar to logs of wood that are stored in a barn, which are Muktzah on Yom Tov even though they may be used for firewood because a person completely puts the wood out of his mind (Beitzah 30a).

A Shofar, on the other hand, has a permissible use as well (driking with it), and therefore a person does not put it out of his mind for Shabbos. Therefore, it may be handled le'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo even according to Rebbi Yehudah.

2) WORDS THAT WERE CHANGED AFTER THE "CHURBAN" AGADAH: The Gemara mentions several pairs of words whose meanings were exchanged after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash (e.g. "Shofar" and "Chatzotzros," "Aravah" and "Tzaftzafah," "Pesora" and "Pesorasa"). The CHASAM SOFER explains homiletically why the meanings of these words changed after the Churban.
(a) "Shofar" and "Chatzotzros" - The Chatzotzros were blown on fast days, during times of trouble (Rosh Hashanah 26b). Chatzotzros, then, are a sign that troubles are befalling the Jewish people. The Shofar, on the other hand, is blown on Rosh Hashanah, a festival. After the Churban, the troubles that befall the Jewish people are for their good, because they spur us to do Teshuvah (as in Megilah 14a). Times of tranquillity are not positive, in the sense that the Jews tend to neglect doing Teshuvah when times are good. Consequently, the Chatzotzros -- which used to be a sign of bad -- are now a sign of good, and v.v. for the Shofar.

(b) "Aravah" and "Tzaftzafah" - "Tzaftzafah" is a reference to those who speak (from the word "l'Tzaftzef") words of Torah, that is, the sages who lead the Jewish people. "Aravah" is a reference to the simple, unlearned, people (because it has neither smell nor taste, as the Midrash explains) . When the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, the unlearned became the leaders while the Torah sages loss the mantle of leadership. As the prophet says, "Yirhavu Na'ar b'Zaken" -- "The young one will be lord over the elder" (Yeshayah 3:5; Sotah 49b).

(c) "Pesora" and "Pesorasa" - "Pesora" originally referred to the "greater table," that is, the lot of the Talmidei Chachamim. As the Mishnah tells us, "[Students of the Torah] - You should have no desire for the table of kings, for your table is greater than theirs (Avos 6:5)." When the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, the Talmid Chacham loss his importance in the eyes of the people, and the "big table" became small in their eyes while the smaller table, that of the wealthy, became important to them. May Hashem return us to the way it once was, speedily in our days!


OPINIONS: RASHI and TOSFOS argue regarding the nature of the prohibition of Shehiyah (placing a pot of food on the stove before Shabbos and leaving it there during Shabbos).

(a) RASHI explains that the prohibition of Shehiyah is part and parcel with the prohibition of Hatmanah b'Davar ha'Mosif Hevel. Since the wood or coals of the Kirah is a material that heats what is put on it, it is forbidden to leave food in or on a Kirah over Shabbos. Hatmanah prohibits not only completely *wrapping* food in a material that adds heat, but even putting food *on top* of a material that adds heat (i.e. the stove). Once the coals are cleared away or covered, the Kirah cools down so much that it is no longer considered Hatmanah in/on a material that adds heat.

Chazarah refers to returning a pot of food to the stove on Shabbos when it was removed on Shabbos. Why is Chazarah more stringent than Shehiyah? (That is, according to Chananyah, Shehiyah is permissible even when the coals on the stove are not cleared away or covered, while Chazarah is permissible only when the coals were taken away before Shabbos or covered. Also, Beis Shamai permits Shehiyah, but forbids Chazarah. Why is Chazarah more stringent?) Rashi (38b, DH Machzirin) explains that Chazarah is similar to doing "Hatmanah" for the first time on Shabbos (Rashi there explains why one may not return a pot to the stove if he did not have in mind to return it when he removed it. The reason, Rashi says, is that since he took his mind off of it, it is considered as though he is doing a new Hatmanah on Shabbos.). Rashi is consistent with his reasoning, for he maintains that the prohibitions of Shehiyah and Chazarah are all types of Hatmanah.

Rashi apparently admits that according to *Chananyah*, leaving food on top of a burner is *not* considered Hatmanah, and is therefore permitted (if it is cooked k'Ma'achal ben Derusa'i). The reason Chananyah prohibits Chazarah on an uncovered Kirah is because it *looks like* the person is cooking on Shabbos (although the food has been precooked before Shabbos). When the coals are covered, however, it does not look like real cooking and is therefore permitted.)

(b) TOSFOS (DH Lo Yiten) argues with Rashi. If a pot of food is on top of a burner, it cannot be called Hatmanah. Hatmanah applies only if the food is completely surrounded by the heat-insulating material. The reason why Shehiyah and Chazarah are prohibited is because of a new Gezeirah -- the Rabanan were concerned that someone might stoke the coals underneath in order to increase the heat (as on 18b). According to the Rabanan who argue with Chananyah, even if food is already cooked k'Ma'achal Ben Drusa'i, it is forbidden to be place it on the stove before Shabbos and leave it there over Shabbos lest one stoke the coals.

According to Tosfos, why is Chazarah more stringent (according to Chananyah, or according to Beis Shamai)? Tosfos understands that Chazarah is more stringent because it more closely resembles a Melachah of Shabbos, since he is putting the food on the stove on Shabbos.

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