THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) WHEN DOES BREAD BECOME BROWN
OPINIONS: The Mishnah (19b) says that one may bake bread in an oven on
Friday only if its surface will become brown (crusted) while it is still
day. Rebbi Eliezer requires that the bottom side of the bread become brown.
The Gemara asks whether the bottom side refers to the part of the bread
that is affixed to the side of the oven, or to the part that faces the fire
underneath. The Gemara concludes that the part that is affixed to the side
of the oven is considered the bottom.
What difference does it make whether the bottom is the side affixed to the
oven, or the side facing the fire?
(a) RASHI, according to the simple understanding of his words, explains
that the side of the bread facing the fire becomes brown quicker than the
side affixed to the oven. The Gemara concludes that one may not bake bread
on Friday unless there is enough time left for *even* the side that is
affixed to the oven to become brown. The Rabanan argue and maintain that it
suffices if one side becomes brown, that is, the side facing the fire
(which browns first). The Rabanan are more lenient than Rebbi Eliezer.
(b) TOSFOS (DH Iyba'ei Lehu) does not accept Rashi's explanation. Tosfos
bases his argument on a Yerushalmi that states that with regard to the
Lechem ha'Panim, Rebbi Eliezer agrees with the Rabanan that a significant
amount of the bread must become brown. This implies that regarding Shabbos,
Rebbi Eliezer maintains that only a *small* part needs to become brown (and
Rebbi Eliezer is more lenient than the Rabanan). According to Rashi's
explanation, the Yerushalmi is saying the opposite of what it should have
said! It should have said that the Rabanan (who, with regard to Shabbos,
require only one side to become brown, the side facing the fire) agree with
Rebbi Eliezer with regard to the Lechem ha'Panim (that a more significant
amount of browning is required).
Therefore, the RIVA in Tosfos explains that the side facing the oven browns
*first*. The Rabanan require that both sides become brown in order to be
considered baked, while Rebbi Eliezer requires only one side to become
brown before Shabbos, that is, it is sufficient if only the side facing the
(c) The PRI MEGADIM (in ROSH YOSEF) is bothered by the question that the
Yerushalmi poses to Rashi's explanation. The Pri Megadim suggests that even
according to Rashi, the Rabanan maintain the more *stringent* opinion. They
require not only the side of the bread stuck to the oven and the side
facing the fire to be brown, but all the *other sides* also must become
brown in order to allow this bread to continue baking on Shabbos. The
Gemara's only doubt is in the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer, who argues with the
Rabanan and is more lenient. The Gemara wants to know exactly how lenient
is he -- does he require that only the side facing the fire be crusted, or
that the side stuck to the oven be crusted as well (but not the other
sides, which crust later)?
When the Yerushalmi says that Rebbi Eliezer agrees with the Rabanan that
with regard to the Lechem ha'Panim we require a significant part of its
surface to be brown, it is now readily understood. For Shabbos, Rebbi
Eliezer required that only one (or two) side(s) be brown, while the Rabanan
require all 6 sides to be brown. Regarding the Lechem ha'Panim, Rebbi
Eliezer agrees with the Rabanan that all 6 sides must be crusted.
2) BURNING REEDS OR SEEDS, SEPARATE AND BUNDLED
OPINIONS: There is an argument in the Gemara whether -- in order to be
permitted to light a fire of reeds or of seeds before Shabbos that will
remain lit on Shabbos -- one needs a majority of the reeds or seeds to be
aflame before Shabbos or not. What is Rav Kahana's conclusion?
(a) The text of our Gemara (which is also the RAHIS's version of the text)
differentiates between reeds and seeds. Reed-sticks burn better when they
are not bundled together, and therefore when they are not bundled we do not
require that a majority be aflame prior to Shabbos. Seeds, on the other
hand, burn better when they are bundled together in a container, and
therefore when they are not bundled we *do* require that a majority be
aflame prior to Shabbos.
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 255:3) cites both the opinion of the Rif
(c) and the opinion of the Rosh (b). It seems that the Shulchan Aruch
maintains that one should be take into account both opinions and not light
a fire with reeds or seeds prior to Shabbos unless a majority is aflame,
whether or not they are bundled together.
(b) The ROSH's text concluded that according to Rav Kahana reeds and seeds
are the same. When they are bundled together they burn better, and there is
no requirement for a majority to be aflame.
(c) The text of the RIF concluded that according to Rav Kahana, both reeds
and seeds burn better when they are *not* bundled together. Hence, when
they are not bundled together, there is no need for a majority to be
aflame. When they *are* bundled together, a majority must be burning.