THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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(1) CARRYING ON EREV SHABBOS CLOSE TO SHABBOS
The Mishnah says that a tailor may not carry his needle outside on Erev
Shabbos close to Shabbos, lest he forget and carry it on Shabbos. What is
it that he will forget?
(a) The simple understanding is that he will forget that he is carrying the
needle, and when Shabbos comes, he will still be carrying it and
inadvertently carry it outside.
(b) However, according to Rava (11b) it cannot be that he will forget that
he is carrying the needle. Rava holds that the Rabanan did not make decrees
to enforce pre-existing decrees (Gezeirah l'Gezeirah). If one forgot that
he was carrying an object and he carried it outside, there is no Isur
d'Oraisa involved. (Shogeg is when a person forgot the Halachah. When he
forgot that he was carrying, he is Mis'asek.) If so, the Rabanan would not
forbid carrying a needle on *Erev Shabbos* to prevent him from
inadvertently carrying it outside on *Shabbos*, because that would be a
decree enforcing another decree.
Rather, we are afraid that he will forget that he is carrying the needle
*until* Shabbos. On Shabbos, he will be aware that he is carrying the
needle, but he might forget that it is Shabbos and carry the needle
outside. (Of course, if he forgets that it is Shabbos we have much more to
worry about than his taking the needle to Reshus ha'Rabim. However, we
assume (a) that he will remember that it is Shabbos before doing a more
obvious Melachah than carrying, and (b) this is preventable, so we try to
(2) MAKING A DECREE TO ENFORCE ANOTHER DECREE
QUESTION: The Gemara explains that Abaye's opinion is that the Rabanan do
indeed make decrees to enforce other decrees. TOSFOS (DH Amar Abaye) points
out that Abaye himself said elsewhere that the Rabanan do *not* make
decrees to enforce other decrees. TOSFOS explains that Abaye maintains that
the Rabanan make decrees to enforce other decrees only with regard to the
Melachah of *Hotza'ah* on Shabbos.
What is different about Hotza'ah that the Rabanan felt a need to make
decrees to enforce their decrees?
(a) The RAN explains that since Hotza'ah is not an obvious act of Melachah
(it is a "Melachah Geru'ah"), people need an additional safeguard.
(b) The TOSFOS HA'ROSH says that since carrying items from one place to
another is a very common act and is done frequently, the Rabanan needed to
make extra decrees to ensure that the prohibition against carrying is
(c) The RAMBAN, MAHARAM, and P'NEI YEHOSHUA explain that since a Karmelis
is so similar to Reshus ha'Rabim, the Rabanan gave it the full laws of a
Reshus ha'Rabim even with regard to the Isurei d'Rabanan. (This explanation
seems problematic, because the Gemara goes on to cite proofs against Rava
from Beraisos that deal with carrying an object into Reshus ha'Rabim in a
manner that is only forbidden mid'Rabanan (on the lapel etc.). Such a
transgression does not involve a Karmelis. Why did the Rabanan made decrees
to enforce other decrees even when the domain under discussion is *not* a
Karmelis! The Ramban answers that there, too, there is a logical
justification for enforcing Rabbinic decrees, since whatever is forbidden
to carry outside (from Reshus ha'Yachid into Reshus ha'Rabim) on Shabbos
should also be forbidden to carry out on Erev Shabbos, lest people confuse
the two cases.
(d) RASHI (DH Mai Lav) seems to say that Abaye is of the opinion that the
Rabanan make decrees to enforce their other decrees in *all* prohibitions