ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 11
(a) Raban Gamliel (ha'Zaken - see Rashash) asked for one of the eight judges
that he found in his attic, to leave - because he had not been invited, and
only judges who were specifically invited who were permitted to participate
in Ibur Shanah.
(b) Shmuel ha'Katan got up to leave - pretending that he had only entered in
the first place in order to learn the procedure of Ibur Shanah.
(c) Raban Gamliel responded - by telling him to sit down, since he was
worthy of sanctifying all the leap-years, only as a matter of principle,
only those who were invited were allowed to participate.
(d) Shmuel ha'Katan was not really the culprit at all - only he wanted to
spare the true culprit from embarrassment.
(a) A similar incident occurred in connection with Rebbi - when someone
entered the Beis-Hamedrash smelling of garlic.
(b) There, it was - Rebbi Chiya who volunteered to leave the room.
(c) When, on the following day, Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi asked Rebbi Chiya
whether he was really the one who had upset his father, he replied 'Chas
ve'Shalom! Lo Tehei ke'Zos be'Yisrael!' (see Agados Maharsha).
(a) Rebbi Chiya learned this Midah from Rebbi Meir. When a woman came to
Rebbi Meir's Beis-Hamedrash, claiming that one of the Rabbis had betrothed
her with Bi'ah - Rebbi Meir promptly wrote her a Get.
(b) The ending that both this episode and the previous one have in common -
is that in both cases, everyone present took their cue from Rebbi Chiya and
Rebbi Meir respectively, and did likewise.
(c) He learned this - from Shmuel ha'Katan.
(d) Shmuel ha'Katan in turn, learned it from Shechanyah ben Yechiel, who
said to Ezra - that they (including himself) had dealt falsely with Hashem,
and had married gentile wives, even though he was not guilty of that sin.
(e) Some say that Shechanyah ben Yechiel learnt it from Yehoshua bin Nun,
others, that he learnt it from Moshe. Hashem said to ...
1. ... Yehoshua (after having informed him that Yisrael had sinned [causing
thirty-six people to fall at the battle of Ay], and Yehoshua had asked Him
who) - that He could not reply to his question, because it was Lashon ha'Ra.
He therefore preferred to say 'Yisrael sinned' (even though most of them had
2. ... Moshe, after some people had gone to gather Manna on Shabbos - "Until
when will you (including Moshe) refuse to obey the Mitzvos?"
(a) After the last prophets died, the level of communication that Hashem
employed to communicate with Yisrael was - that of Bas-Kol.
(b) The last prophets were - Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi (members of the
Anshei K'neses ha'Gedolah at the beginning of the second Beis-Hamikdash).
(c) When the Bas-Kol declared in the attic of Beis Guryah in Yericho that he
was worthy of the Shechinah resting on him like Moshe Rabeinu (see Agados
Maharsha), only the generation was not - it was referring to Hillel
(d) When he died, they eulogized him as - 'Hei Anav, Hei Chasid, Talmido
(a) A very similar set of experiences, which began in the attic in Yavneh,
occurred with - Shmuel ha'Katan, whom they described as the disciple of
(b) The latter prophesied that ...
1. ... Shimon (Raban Shimon ben Gamliel) and Yishmael (Rebbi Yishmael Kohen
Gadol) - would die by the sword.
(c) They meant to eulogize Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava in the same way as the
eulogized Hillel and Shmuel ha'Katan. They did not do so - because he was
one of the ten martyrs, and one does not eulogize a martyr (who needs to be
buried quickly and clandestinely, to avoid reprisals).
2. ... their colleagues - (such as Rebbi Akiva, whose skin was torn from his
body with iron combs, and Rebbi Chananya ben T'radyon, who was burned to
death) would be murdered (see Agados Maharsha, though his explanation does
not conform with the cruel death suffered by Rebbi Yishmael).
3. ... the people of Yisrael - would be taken as spoil?
4. ... the rest of the world - would undergo much suffering.
(a) The Beraisa permits the Beis-Din to declare a leap year - only with the
(b) The Tana supports this from an episode with Raban Gamliel who happened
to be in Syria - in order to discuss communal matters, when the Beis-Din
decided to declare a leap year.
(c) The outcome of that episode was - that Beis-Din had indeed decided to
fix a leap-year only on condition that Raban Gamliel consented, which he did
upon his return. Consequently, that year automatically turned into a
(a) The Beraisa lists four reasons for declaring a leap-year: because of 1.
the roads; 2. the bridges; 3. the Pesach-ovens. The common factor that
connects all three is - the fact that it is because of the delay caused by
the rain spoiling them that the year is being extended.
(b) The fourth reason is - the fact that the Galuyos have already left for
Eretz Yisrael, but have not yet arrived in Eretz Yisrael for Pesach.
(c) One cannot however, declare a leap-year because of snow or the cold -
because of the feasibility of traveling under such conditions.
(d) The third reason the Tana adds to this list is - because the Galuyos
have not even set out yet on the journey to Eretz Yisrael.
(a) Another Beraisa does not permit declaring a leap-year because the
kid-goats and the lambs are still very young, or because the pigeons are as
yet unable to fly. The significance of the tender age of ...
1. ... the kids and the lambs is - the fact that they are needed for the
Korban Pesach, and when they are so small, they are more difficult to take
to Yerushalayim (as well as practically being that much smaller).
(b) These reasons are not sufficient to warrant a leap-year - because it is
possible to bring a Korban Pesach from the smallest kid or lamb, as long as
it is more than seven days old; and as for the pigeon, one always has the
option of bringing young doves, which are equally eligible to be brought as
2. ... the inability of the pigeons to fly is - the fact that grown-up
pigeons are required by anyone who has to bring a bird-Korban, such as a
woman who gave birth or a Zav (who would normally take advantage of the
pilgrimage to Yerushalayim to fulfill their obligation).
(c) Nevertheless, the Tana qualifies this ruling - by permitting any of
those reasons as a back-up for one of the main reasons, which we will
(a) We cite Rebbi Yanai in the name of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in a Beraisa
which elaborates on the previous point. Besides the fact that Pesach fell
out of season - he used the fact that the birds were not yet able to fly, to
declare a leap-year.
(b) In another Beraisa, the Tana Kama gives Adar Sheini as thirty days.
Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says - 'a month', which means twenty-nine days.
(c) We reconcile this with his own opinion in the previous Beraisa, where he
himself concludes that he and his Beis-Din once added thirty days - by
interpreting the Tana Kama of the latter Beraisa to mean specifically thirty
days, and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, *even* twenty-nine days (should the
Beis-Din so wish).
(a) If the Beraisa refers to Raban Gamliel (of Yavneh) as 'Tekifa'i Kadma'i'
(the early tough one) because of his tough handling of Rebbi Yehoshua (in
B'rachos and elsewhere), by 'Invesani Basra'i', he means - Raban Gamliel's
son Raban Shimon ben Gamliel (whom we just quoted).
(b) He instructed Yochanan the Sofer to write (on a scroll) ...
1. ... to 'our brothers of the upper and the lower Galilee' - that the time
for Biy'ur Ma'asros (getting rid of all the Ma'asros [Rishon, Sheini and
Ani) of the olives (in the fourth year [see Rashash]) had arrived.
(c) Raban Gamliel chose to inform the three groups of people that he did,
specifically on olives, grapes and of the Ibur respectively - because olives
grew in abundance in the north and corn in the south, whereas it was the
people who live in Galus, far away from Yerushalayim, who needed to be
informed that that year was a leap-year.
2. ... to our brothers in the south - that the time for Biy'ur Ma'asros of
the corn (in the fourth year had arrived.
3. ... to our brothers in Galus - that the pigeons and lambs were young, and
that although Pesach was imminent, spring had not yet arrived, so he and his
colleagues had decided to add Adar Sheini consisting of thirty days.
(a) The Tana commended Raban Gamliel - for adding the words 'I and my
colleagues' (which is a sign of humility). Raban Shimon, his son, on the
other hand (in spite of his tremendous humility, did not incorporate his
colleagues in his decision. And that is what elicited the Tana's distinction
between the tough father and the humble son?
(b) We modify the Tana's statement however - by suggesting that perhaps
Raban Gamliel's statement was made after he had been deposed, and his
toughness had dissipated.
(a) The Beraisa lists three things for which Beis-Din declare a leap-year :
1. 'al ha'Aviv; 2. ve'al Peiros ha'Ilan - 3. ve'al ha'Tekufah' (see Tosfos
(b) The meaning of ...
1. ... 'al ha'Aviv' is - that the corn has not yet ripened by the time Nisan
arrives, and the Torah writes (in Parshas Bo, in connection with Pesach)
"be'Chodesh ha'Aviv". The reason cannot be because then they will not be
able to bring the Omer - because the Tana will say shortly that if the
produce has not ripened in Eiver ha'Yarden and Galil, they declare a
leap-year, even though it has ripened in Yehudah (in which case they *will*
have produce with which to bring the Omer).
(c) Beis-Din will not declare a leap-year for any one of these reasons, only
for at least two.
2. ... 'al Peiros ha'Ilan' - that the fruit has not ripened by the time
Sivan arrives, and the Torah refers to Shevu'os as 'Chag ha'Bikurim'
(implying that the fruit has ripened).
3. ... 'al ha'Tekufah' - that the Tamuz season (usually the 21st of June) or
the Tishri season (usually the 21st of September) falls late, as will be
explained later in the Sugya.
(d) If one of the reasons is 'Aviv', then everyone is happy - because if it
was not, it would mean that they would have to wait an extra month before
being able to eat Chadash (the new crops), even though it is ready to eat.
(a) It would also make everybody happy if Tekufah was one of the two reasons
for the Ibur Shanah - because if it was not, then, in spite of the fact that
Yom-Tov would be delayed by one month, the rain season would begin in its
usual time, and the Olei Regalim would get caught in the rain as they made
their way towards Yerushalayim.
(b) Alternatively, when Raban Shimon ben Gamliel argues with the Tana Kama
and says 'Al ha'Tekufah', he might mean - that Beis-Din will fix a leap-year
for 'Tekufah' alone, seeing as it is d'Oraysa (the other two reasons must
then be an Asmachta).
(c) The ramifications of the division of Eretz Yisrael into three areas
Yehudah, Eiver ha'Yarden ve'Galil - are - that Beis-Din will only declare a
leap-year because of Aviv, if the crops in any two of the three areas have
not yet ripened (but not on one alone).
(d) Lechatchilah, Ibur Shanah should only take place in Yehudah. Rebbi
Yehudah B'rei de'Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi however, cites the Pasuk -
"le'Shichno Sidreshu u'Va'asa Shamah", which teaches us that whenever one
seeks Hashem, one should do it in the vicinity of the Shechinah (i.e. in
Yerushalayim). And with that he explains why Rebbi Chananya Ish Ono holds
even Bedieved, the year is not Me'ubar, if Beis-Din declare it Me'ubar in
(a) The Beraisa says - that Beis-Din cannot perform Ibur Shanah or Ibur
Chodesh by night.
(b) Rebbi Aba learns this from the Pasuk "Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar, ba'Kesse
le'Yom Chageinu ... ".
(c) He knows that the Pasuk is talking about Rosh Chodesh, and not one of
the Shalosh Regalim (in spite of the fact that the Pasuk mentions the word
"Chag") - because the words "ba'Chodsh ... ba'Kesse" imply that the Pasuk is
referring to a Chag which falls on Rosh Chodesh, when the moon is hidden,
and the only Chag that fits this description is Rosh Hashanah.
(d) He learn that Kidush ha'Chodesh must take place by day - because the
Pasuk concludes "Mishpat l'Elokei Ya'akov", and 'Mishpat' can only take
place in the day (as the Torah writes in Ki Seitzei "ve'Hayah be'Yom
Hanchilo es Banav", and as we will explain in 'Echad Dinei Mamonos').