POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 111
1) HOW MANY WILL BE SPARED?
(a) (Reish Lakish): "Hirchivah She'ol (Gehinom will
accommodate, i.e. punish) li'Vli Chok" - even someone who
did not observe even one law. (Maharsha - his sins and
Mitzvos were equal, he did not fulfill one additional
Mitzvah which would have made him mostly Mitzvos; Sefer
ha'Ikarim (brought in Anaf Yosef) - he needs Gehinom to
achieve the ultimate perfection normally obtained through
that Mitzvah; Ri Mintz (ibid) - one who cast off the yoke
of a Mitzvah (was never careful to guard it) is like one
who denies Torah, he is eternally punished).
2) TRAITS THAT HASH-M DESIRES
(b) Objection (R. Yochanan): Hash-m will not judge so
1. Rather, even one who learned (Ramah - fulfilled) a
single law will be spared. (Ri Mintz - he is
eternally punished only if he says that there is no
such Mitzvah in the Torah.)
(c) (Reish Lakish): "B'Chol ha'Aretz...Pi Shnayim Bah Yikarsu
Yigva'u veha'Shelishis Yivaser Bah" - two thirds of the
descendants of Shem's third son (Arpachshad) will die
when Mashi'ach comes.
(d) Objection (R. Yochanan): Do not say this (if most
descendants of Arpachshad at the time will be Yisrael,
this would mean that a large portion of Yisrael will
1. Rather, the third son of No'ach's third son (i.e.
all descendants of Arpachshad) will survive,
(e) (Reish Lakish (and Rav Kahana)): "V'Lakachti Eschem Echas
me'Ir u'Shanyim mi'Mishpachah" - this is literally true
(only one from a city or two from a nation (of Nochrim)
(f) Objection (R. Yochanan (and Rav)): Do not say this!
Rather, Hash-m will spare a city even on account of one
Tzadik in it, and a nation on account of two Tzadikim.
(g) Rav saw that Rav Kahana would shampoo his hair before
coming to learn, he said "Lo Simatzei b'Eretz ha'Chayim".
1. Rav Kahana: Do you curse me?!
(h) (Beraisa - R. Simai): "V'Lakachti Eschem...v'Heveisi
Eschem" - the Torah equates leaving Mitzrayim to entering
Eretz Yisrael - just as only two out of 600,000 (counted
in the Midbar) entered Eretz Yisrael, also only two out
of every 600,000 (that were in Mitzrayim) left Mitzrayim
(the rest died during the plague of darkness).
2. Rav: No - the verse means, Torah is not found in
those who look to live comfortably.
(i) (Rava): The same applies to Yemos Mashi'ach - "Uch'Yom
Alosah me'Eretz Mitzrayim".
(a) (Beraisa - R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi): A Mitzri told me that
the Mitzriyim drowned some Yisraelim in the sea, killed
others by the sword, and mashed others into buildings (in
place of bricks);
1. Moshe was punished for this - he said "Ume'Az Basi
El Paro...Hera la'Am ha'Zeh";
(b) Question: "Va'Ymaher Moshe va'Yikod Artzah va'Yishtachu"
- what did he see (that made him rush to bow)?
2. Hash-m: There is no one today like the Avos! I
promised Eretz Yisrael to the Avos with the name
"Kel Shakai", they never asked My name (i.e. which
attribute will fulfill the promise);
i. I told Avraham "Hishalech ba'Aretz...Ki Lecha
Etnenah"; he could not find a burial place for
Sarah until he paid 400 Shekalim, he did not
ii. I told Yitzchak "Gur ba'Aretz ha'Zos v'Ehyeh
Imcha va'Avarcheka"; his slaves could not find
water to drink without contention, he did not
iii. I told Yakov "Ha'Aretz Asher Ata Shochev Aleha
Lecha Etnenah"; he could not find a place to
pitch his tent until he paid 100 Keshitah, he
did not resent this;
iv. None of them asked My name - but you (Moshe)
asked My name from the beginning, and now you
say "Lo Hitzalta Es Amecha" - "Ata Sir'eh Asher
E'eseh l'Far'o", but you will not live to see
what I will do to the 31 kings in Eretz Yisrael
(when Benei Yisrael enter).
(c) Answer #1 (R. Chanina ben Gamliel): He saw the attribute
'Erech Apayim' (slow to anger).
(d) Answer #2 (Rabanan): He saw the attribute of Emes.
(e) A Beraisa is like R. Chanina ben Gamliel.
1. (Beraisa): When Moshe went up to receive the Torah,
he saw Hash-m writing 'Erech Apayim' (in the Torah);
Moshe said that this should be only for Tzadikim.
2. Hash-m: It is even for Resha'im.
3. Moshe: Resha'im should perish!
4. Hash-m: You will (later) see the need for Erech
Apayim for Resha'im.
5. When Yisrael sinned (with the Meraglim, and Moshe
prayed that Yisrael be spared), Hash-m said 'You
said that Erech Apayim should be only for Tzadikim!
3) "IR HA'NIDACHAS"
6. Moshe: "V'Ata Yigdal Na Ko'ach Hash-m ka'Asher
Dibarta Leimor (Hash-m Erech Apayim)" - you said
that it is even for Resha'im.
(f) R. Chaga heard a child saying "Edosecha Ne'emnu
Me'od...Hash-m l'Orech Yamim (i.e. the attribute Erech
Apayim)" - (presumably, Moshe said this, for) this is
shortly after "Tefilah l'Moshe";
1. R. Chaga: This shows that he saw Erech Apayim.
(g) (R. Elazar): In the future, Hash-m will be a crown on
every Tzadik - "B'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh Hash-m Tzevakos
(h) Question: What does it mean "La'Ateres Tzvi veli'Tzfiras
(i) Answer: This is for those who do His Tzivyon (will) and
await His Tif'arah (glory).
(j) Suggestion: Perhaps this is for all who do His will, even
if they get haughty!
(k) Rejection: "Li'Sh'ar Amo" - only for one who considers
himself like Shirayim (leftovers).
(l) "Ul'Ru'ach Mishpat" - this is one who rules over his
Yetzer ha'Ra; "Ul'Yoshev Al ha'Mishpat" - this is a judge
who gives the proper verdict; "Veli'Gvurah" - this is one
who overcomes his Yetzer ha'Ra; "Meshivei Milchamah" -
this is one who debates in Torah; "Sharah" - these are
those who come early and stay late in Batei Keneses and
(m) Midas ha'Din: Why are Tzadikim with these Midos treated
better than others who do Your will?
(n) Hash-m: The others (were not such Tzadikim -) "Ba'Yayin
1. "Paku" - they will go to Gehinom, on account of
"Peliliyah" (judgment, when they were drunk).
(a) (Mishnah): Residents of an Ir ha'Nidachas....[have no
share in the world to come - "Yatzu Anashim Benei
Veliya'al mi'Kirbecha (they left your midst, i.e. your
share in the world to come)". Ran deletes this from the
text, for those killed by Beis Din confess and have a
share in the world to come.]
4) DIVIDING A CITY AMONG TWO TRIBES
(b) They are beheaded only if they were enticed by men of
their city and Shevet, and the majority of the city was
1. If the enticers were women or children or came from
outside of (the city), or if the minority of the
city was enticed, they are stoned like individuals
who served idolatry.
(c) (Two) witnesses and warning are required for every
(d) A stringency of individuals (killed for idolatry) over a
city - individuals are stoned, therefore (the Torah is
lenient on their money), their money passes to their
1. A city is beheaded, therefore their money is
destroyed - "Hake Sakeh...l'Fi Charev".
(e) If a caravan of donkey-drivers or camel-drivers stayed in
the city (for 30 days), they are considered residents
(when calculating whether or not the majority served
idolatry), they can cause the city to be saved (or
destroyed) - "Ha'Charem Osah v'Es Kol Asher Bah"...
1. This teaches that property of Tzadikim in the city
is destroyed, their property outside the city is
(f) Property of the Resha'im, even outside of the city is
destroyed - "V'Es Kol Shelalah".
(g) If there is no square (meeting place) in the city, we
build one; if it is outside the city, we bring it in -
"Tikbotz El Toch Rechovah".
(h) "V'Sarafta...v'Es Kol *Shelalah*" - its spoils, not
Hash-m's - this teaches that if there was Hekdesh inside,
we redeem it (and do not burn it); if there was Terumah,
we let it rot; if there was Ma'aser Sheni and Kisvei
ha'Kodesh, they are buried.
(i) R. Shimon says, "Kalil la'Sh-m" teaches that if we
properly destroy an Ir ha'Nidachas, Hash-m considers it
like an Olah (which is Kalil, totally consumed on the
(j) R. Yosi ha'Galili says "V'Haysah Tel Olam" forbids using
it for gardens or orchards;
(k) R. Akiva says, "Lo Sibaneh Od" forbids rebuilding it as
it was (a city), but it may be used for gardens or
(l) "Ve'Lo Yidbak b'Yadcha Me'umah Min ha'Cherem" - as long
as there are Resha'im in the world, Hash-m's anger is in
the world; when Resha'im perish from the world, Hash-m's
anger leaves the world.
(m) (Gemara - Beraisa): "Yatzu" - enticers themselves, not
their messengers; "Anashim" - this denotes at least two,
and excludes women and children;
1. "Benei Veliya'al" - children (Bli Ol) that cast the
yoke of Shamayim off their necks;
2. "Mi'Kirbecha" - amidst you, not from the border of
3. "Yoshvei Iram" - not residents of another city;
4. "Leimor" - witnesses and warning are required for
(a) (R. Yochanan): A city may be divided among two tribes.
(b) (Reish Lakish): It may not be divided among two tribes.
(c) Question (R. Yochanan - Mishnah): They are beheaded only
if they were enticed by men of their city and Shevet.
1. Suggestion: Even though the enticers are from the
same city, it only becomes an Ir ha'Nidachas if they
are from the same Shevet, i.e. the city was divided
among two tribes!
(d) Answer: No, the case is, people from a different Shevet
inherited (or received a gift of) land in the city.
(e) Question: "Arim Tesha me'Es Shnei ha'Shevatim ha'Elu";
1. Suggestion: Each Shevet gave four and a half cities,
i.e. a city was divided among two tribes!
(f) Answer: No, one Shevet gave four cities, the other gave
(g) Question: If so, the verse should specify how many each
(h) This is left difficult.