POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 99
SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs.
Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb
Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the
merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his
1) THE TIME AND DURATION OF MASHI'ACH
(a) A Min: When will Mashi'ach come?
2) THE REWARD AWAITING TZADIKIM
(b) R. Avahu: When those people (Minim) will be covered with
(c) The Min: You cursed me!
(d) R. Avahu: The verse says "Hinei ha'Choshech Yechaseh
Eretz va'Arafel l'Umim v'Alayich Yizrach Hash-m..."!
(e) (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): The days of Mashi'ach will be 40
years - "Arbaim Shanah Akut b'Dor";
(f) R. Elazar ben Azaryah says, they will be 70 years -
"...V'Nishkachas Tzur Shiv'im Shanah ki'Mei Melech
1. This refers to the special king, Mashi'ach.
(g) Rebbi says, they will be three generations - "Yira'ucha
Im Shemesh...Dor Dorim" (Dor teaches one, Dorim teaches
(h) R. Hillel says, Yemos ha'Mashi'ach were already fulfilled
in the days of Chizkiyah.
(i) Objection (Rav Yosef): May Hash-m pardon his mistake!
Chizkiyah was in the first Mikdash, Zecharyah prophesized
in the second Mikdash "Hinei Malkech Yavo"!
(j) (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): The days of Mashi'ach will be 40
years - it says here "Va'Y'ancha va'Yar'ivecha", it also
says "Samchenu ki'Mos Anisanu" - just as we were in the
Midbar for 40 years, so will be Yemos ha'Mashi'ach.
(k) R. Dosa says, it will be 400 years - Yemos ha'Mashi'ach
are equated to Galus Mitzrayim, "V'Inu Osam Arba Me'os
(l) Rebbi says, they will be 365 years, corresponding to the
days of the year - "Yom Nokom b'Libi u'Shnas Ge'ulai
(m) Question: What does it mean "Yom Nokom b'Libi"?
(n) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): Hash-m revealed the time of
Mashi'ach to His heart, not to His limbs (i.e. he did not
(o) Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): Hash-m revealed the time of
Mashi'ach to His heart, not to the angels.
(p) (Avimi son of R. Avahu): Yemos ha'Mashi'ach will be 7000
years for Yisrael - "U'Msos Chasan Al Kalah Ken Yasis
Alayich Hash-m" (a Chasan rejoices seven days with his
Kalah, Hash-m's day is 1000 years).
(q) (Rav Yehudah): Yemos ha'Mashi'ach will last as long as
the time from creation until Mashi'ach comes - "Ki'Mei
ha'Shamayim Al ha'Aretz".
(r) (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): They will last as long as the
time from No'ach (the flood) until Mashi'ach comes - "Ki
Mei No'ach Zos Li Asher Nishbati (mi'Ktzof Alayich)" (we
expound as it said 'ki'Mei...').
(a) (R. Chiya bar Aba): Nevi'im prophesized about Yemos
ha'Mashi'ach, but not about the world to come - "Ayin Lo
Ra'asah Elokim Zulasecha Ya'aseh li'Mchakeh Lo".
3) ONE WHO DESPISES TORAH
(b) He argues with Shmuel.
1. (Shmuel): The only difference between this world and
Yemos ha'Mashi'ach is that the kingdoms will cease
to rule over Yisrael. (The prophecies describe the
world to come.)
(c) (R. Chiya bar Aba): Nevi'im prophesized about the reward
awaiting penitent sinners, but the reward of Tzadikim
that never sinned "Ayin Lo Ra'asah..."
(d) He argues with R. Avahu.
1. (R. Avahu): Penitent sinners have a greater share in
the world to come than Tzadikim that never sinned -
"Shalom Shalom la'Rachok vela'Karov", the Rachok
(far) is in front of the near;
(e) (R. Chiya bar Aba): Nevi'im prophesized about the reward
awaiting those who marry their daughters to Chachamim, do
business with Chachamim and benefit Chachamim from their
possessions, or penitent sinners, but the reward of
Chachamim themselves "Ayin Lo Ra'asah..."
i. 'Far' is one who was far from Hash-m (but
repented), 'near' is one who was always close.
2. R. Yochanan explains, 'Far' is one who distanced
himself from sin, 'near' is one who was close to sin
and distanced himself.
(f) Question: What does it mean "Ayin Lo Ra'asah..."?
(g) Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): This is wine that has
been guarded in the grape since the six days of creation
(Chidushei Torah that were never revealed to any person).
(h) Answer #2 (Reish Lakish): This is Eden.
(i) Question: But Adam ha'Rishon saw it!
(j) Answer: He was in Gan Eden, this is not Eden itself -
"V'Nahar Yotzei *me'Eden* Lehashkos Es ha'Gan".
(a) (Mishnah): One who says that Torah was not given from
(b) (Beraisa #1): "Ki Devar Hash-m Bazah..." - this is one
who says that Hash-m did not give the Torah.
1. Alternatively - "Ki Devar Hash-m Bazah", this is an
Apikorus (this and the next opinion will be defined
(c) "...V'Es Mitzvaso Hefar..." - this is one who does not
2. Alternatively - "Ki Devar Hash-m Bazah", this is
Megaleh Panim ba'Torah;
(d) "Hikares" - in this world; "Tikares" - in the world to
1. R. Eliezer ha.Moda'i says, one who desecrates
Kodshim, disgraces the festivals (Rashi - Chol
ha'Mo'ed; Rambam - Yom Tov), nullifies circumcision,
is Megaleh Panim ba'Torah, or makes a person blush
in public (by embarrassing him), even if he has
Torah and Mitzvos, he has no share in the world to
(e) (Beraisa #2): "Ki Devar Hash-m Bazah..." - this is one
who says that Hash-m did not give the Torah;
1. Even if he says that Hash-m gave the entire Torah
except for one verse which Moshe wrote on his own,
or that Moshe decided that a certain word should be
written missing a letter or with an extra letter, or
that (a particular; Margoliyos ha'Yam - the
principle of) Kal va'Chomer or Gezerah Shavah was
not from Hash-m, this is considered "Devar Hash-m
(f) (Beraisa - R. Meir): "Ki Devar Hash-m Bazah"- this is one
who learns Torah and does not teach it;
1. R. Noson says, this is one who belittles the
importance of Mishnah;
(g) R. Yehoshua ben Korchah says, one who learns Torah and
does not review it is like one who sows and does not
2. R. Nehurai says, this is one who could engage in
Torah and does not;
3. R. Yishmael says, this is one who serves idolatry.
i. Question: How does he learn this from the
ii. Answer (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): "Devar Hash-m
Bazah" - he is Mevazeh (disgraces) the Dibur
(utterance) "Lo Yihyeh Lecha Elohim Acherim".
(h) R. Yehoshua says, one who learns Torah and forgets it is
like a woman who bears children and buries them.
(i) R. Akiva says, by constantly reviewing one's learning, he
will remember it, like one remembers a song he always
4) THE REWARD OF TORAH
1. (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): He learns from "Nefesh
Amel Amlah Lo Ki Achaf Alav Pihu".
(j) Question (R. Elazar): "Ki Adam l'Amal Yulad" - was man
created to toil with his mouth or in work?
(k) Answer: "Ki Achaf Alav Pihu" - he was created to toil
with his mouth.
1. Question: Was he created to toil in Torah or in
(l) (Reish Lakish): "No'ef Ishah Chasar Lev" - this is one
who learns intermittently (like an adulterer who is not
regular with one wife) - "Na'im Ki Sishmerem b'Vitnecha
Yikonu Yachdav Al Sefasecha" (by constantly learning, you
will retain your Torah).
2. Answer: "Lo Yamush Sefer ha'Torah ha'Zeh mi'Picha" -
he was created to toil in Torah.
3. (Rava): All bodies were created to toil - happy are
those who toil in Torah.
(m) (Beraisa): "Veha'Nefesh Asher Ta'aseh b'Yad Ramah" - this
refers to Menasheh, who mocked the Torah:
1. (He said) Moshe wrote things that do not teach
anything - "Va'Achos Lotan Timna v'Simna Haysah
Filegesh le'Elifaz", and "Va'Yelech Reuven bi'Mei
Ketzir Chitim va'Yimtza Duda'im ba'Sadeh"!
(n) Question: What do we learn from "Va'Achos Lotan Timna"?
2. A Bas Kol: "B'Achicha Sedaber b'Ven Imecha Titen
Dofi...Ochichacha v'E'erchah l'Einecha".
i. Regarding Menasheh it says "Hoy Moshchei
he'Avon b'Chavlei ha'Shav...(he sinned without
reason or benefit).
ii. Question: What does it mean "...V'Cha'Avos
iii. Answer (R. Asi): At first, the Yetzer ha'Ra is
like a thread of Kuvya (a spider's web), in the
end (after conceding to it many times) it is
like ropes that draw the Agalah (wagon).
(o) Answer: It emphasizes that she was a princess - "Aluf
Lotan" (many texts omit "Aluf Timna"; Ramah - the latter
verse itself proves that she was like a queen).
1. 'Aluf' refers to an uncrowned king.
(p) (Rava b'Rebbi Yitzchak): "Va'Yelech Reuven bi'Mei Ketzir
Chitim" - this shows that Tzadikim are careful to avoid
theft (he went after the harvest, when people do not mind
others walking on their fields).
2. She wanted to convert -she went to Avraham, Yitzchak
and Yakov, but they refused to accept her. She
became a Pilegesh to Elifaz the son of Esav - she
reasoned, it is better to be a slave to the nation
of Avraham and Yitzchak than to be a distinguished
wife in another nation.
3. Her son was Amalek, whose nation torments Yisrael -
this was a punishment, the Avos should not have
1. Question: What are Duda'im?
2. Answer #1 (Rav): Yavruchi (this is the Targum
(perhaps - mandrakes); Rashi is unsure what they
3. Answer #2 (Levi): Siglei (violets?)
4. Answer #3 (R. Yonason): Seviski (a type of spice).
(a) (R. Alexandri): One who learns Torah Lishmah (purely in
order to understand it) creates Shalom above and below -
"O Yachazik b'Ma'uzi Ya'aseh Shalom Li Shalom Ya'aseh
5) WHAT IS AN APIKORUS
(b) (Rav): It is as if he built Heaven and earth - "Va'Asim
Devarai b'Ficha...Linto'a Shamayim v'Lisod Aretz";
(c) (R. Yochanan): He protects the entire world- "Uv'Tzel
(d) (Levi): He brings the redemption closer - "V'Leimor
l'Tziyon Ami Ata";
(e) (Reish Lakish): If one teaches Torah to another's son,
the Torah considers it as if he made him - "V'Es
ha'Nefesh Asher Asu v'Charan";
(f) (R. Elazar): It is as if he made the words of Torah -
(g) (Rava): It is as if he made himself - we read "Va'Asisem
Osam" like 'Va'Asisem Atem'.
(h) (R. Avahu): If one induces another to do a Mitzvah, the
Torah considers it as if he himself did it - "Asher
Hikisa Bo Es ha'Ye'or".
1. Question: Aharon struck the river, not Moshe!
2. Answer: This teaches that because Moshe caused
Aharon to do it, he is credited as if he did it.
(a) Version #1 - (Rav and R. Chanina): An Apikorus is one who
disgraces a Chacham.
(b) (R. Yochanan and R. Yehoshua ben Levi): It is one who
disgraces a person in front of a Chacham.
(c) (The Beraisa (99A) explained that "Devar Hash-m Bazah"
can refer to Apikorus or Megaleh Panim ba'Torah.)
(d) Question: According to R. Yochanan, we can say that
Megaleh Panim ba'Torah is one who disgraces a Chacham;
1. But according to Rav, that is Apikorus - how does he
explain Megaleh Panim ba'Torah?
(e) Answer: It is someone like Menasheh (who mocks Torah).
(f) Version #2 - (Rav and R. Chanina): Megaleh Panim ba'Torah
is one who disgraces a Chacham.
(g) (R. Yochanan and R. Yehoshua ben Levi): It is one who
disgraces a person in front of a Chacham.
(h) Question: According to Rav, we can say that Apikorus is
one who disgraces a person in front of a Chacham;
1. But according to R. Yochanan, that is Megaleh Panim
ba'Torah - how does he explain Apikorus?
(i) Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): It is someone who says that
Chachamim do not benefit others, they only learn for
(j) Objection (Abaye): That is also Megaleh Panim ba'Torah -
"Im Lo Brisi Yomam va'Laylah Chukos Shamayim va'Aretz Lo
Samti" (the world only exists because people are
1. (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): "V'Nasasi l'Chol
ha'Makom Ba'avuram" also teaches that Chachamim
(k) Answer #2: Apikorus is a Talmid who cites a teaching
saying 'We said such and such there', and does not
attribute the teaching to the Rebbi.