POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 96
SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs.
Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb
Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the
merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his
1) HASH-M DISGRACED SANCHERIV
(a) (R. Avahu): If we did not have the verse, it would be
forbidden for us to say this!
2) NEBUCHADNETZAR'S REWARD
1. "B'Yom ha'Hu Yegalach Hash-m...b'Melech Ashur Es
ha'Rosh..." - Hash-m assumed the guise of an old
man, and came (Ramah - prompted an old man to come)
in front of Sancheriv.
(b) Sancheriv found a board from No'ach's ark; he said 'This
(Rashi - plank; Maharsha - the plank's Mazel above; Ramah
- Hash-m) is the great god (Ramah - G-d) that saved
No'ach from the flood! If I am saved (from the kings) I
will sacrifice my two sons to it (to You); his sons heard
this and killed him - "Hu Mishtachaveh Beis Nisroch (like
Neser, plank) Elohav...Banav Hikuhu".
2. The old man: When you return to the kings of the
east and west, what will you say to them (you took
their princes to witness your expected victory, they
3. Sancheriv: I am afraid, I do not know what to say -
what should I say?
4. The old man: Disguise yourself!
5. Sancheriv: How should I do that?
6. The old man: Bring me scissors from that house, I
will shave you!
7. Angels in the forms of men were grinding date pits;
they agreed to lend him scissors if he would grind
some pits. ("B'Sa'ar ha'Sechirah b'Evrei Nahar" - he
rented the razor by doing work normally done by the
8. By the time Sancheriv returned, it was dark; he
brought a fire. (The man was cutting his hair,)
Sancheriv was blowing the fire to fan it, his beard
caught fire, it consumed all the hair of his beard
and face - "V'Gam Es ha'Zaken Tispeh".
i. (Rav Papa): This is as people say - if you
singe a Nochri and he likes it, you can burn
his beard, he will be an endless source of
(c) (R. Yochanan): "Va'Yechalek Aleihem Laylah Hu va'Avadav
va'Yakem" - the angel who helped Avraham fight the four
kings is called Laylah - "Veha'Laylah Amar Horah Gever".
(Maharsha - this angel asks Hash-m (at the time of
conception) if the child will be a Gibor (mighty one), it
was proper that he should help Avraham overcome the
Gevurah of Nimrod and the other kings.)
(d) (R. Yitzchak Nafcha): "Laylah...va'Yakem" - Hash-m
performed a nighttime miracle for Avraham (just like he
did for Barak), "Ha'Kochavim mi'Mesilosam Nilchamu Im
(a) (R. Yochanan): "Va'Yirdof Ad Dan" - when Avraham reached
Dan, his strength waned, for he saw that his descendants
would serve idolatry there - "Va'Yasem (Yar'ovom made two
golden calves for idolatry, and put)...v'Es ha'Echad
1. Nebuchadnetzar did not reach his strength until he
reached Dan -"Mi'Dan Nishma Nachras Susav".
(b) (R. Zeira citing R. Yehudah ben Beseira): Beware of a
Chacham who forgot his learning through Ones;
1. Be careful to cut the veins (of a bird during
slaughter, for it is often roasted whole and not
salted like animals) like R. Yehudah;
(c) Yirmeyah asked "Tzadik Ata Hash-m...Madu'a Derech
2. Be careful to honor the children of ignoramuses who
became Chachamim, for they will be sources of Torah
i. Version #1 (R. Zeira): We tell them (the
children of ignoramuses) about Sancheriv's
children (so they will realize that their honor
is on account of their Torah, not because of
their ancestors' merits).
ii. Version #2 (R. Zeira): We tell them the
following about Nebuchadnetzar, so they will
realize that their ancestors' merits, even if
small, is the reason for their honor.
(d) Hash-m answered "Ki Es Raglayim Ratzta..." - a parable, a
man boasted 'I can run 12 Mil in front of horses, even in
marsh. He saw a man running, he ran in front of him for
three Mil on dry land and wearied.
1. If he wearied running in front of a man, all the
more so in front of horses! If he wearied running
three Mil, all the more so 12 Mil! If he wearied
running on dry land, all the more so on marsh!
(e) Similarly - if you are amazed about the reward given to
Nebuchadnetzar for four steps he took for My honor (this
will be explained), how much more will you be amazed at
the reward given to Avraham, Yitzchak and Yakov, who ran
in front of Me (did My will) like horses!
1. "La'Nevi'im Nishbar Libi..." (Yirmeyah is in awe
when he thinks about the reward they will receive).
(f) Question: What were the four steps Nebuchadnetzar took
for Hash-m's honor?
(g) Answer: "Shalach Merodach Bal'adan...";
1. Question: Because Chizkiyah was sick and recovered,
the king of Bavel send letters and a gift?!
(h) Question: Why was he called Bal'adan ben Bal'adan?
2. Answer (R. Yochanan): "Lidrosh ha'Mofes Asher Hayah
ba'Aretz" - the day Achaz died there were only two
hours (so there would not be time to bury and
i. When Chizkiyah was sick and recovered, Hash-m
returned the extra 10 hours - "Va'Tashav
ha'Shemsh Eser Ma'alos ba'Ma'alos Asher
3. When Bal'adan heard the reason for the miracle, he
wanted to send Shalom. They wrote 'Shalom to Melech
Chizkiyah, Shalom to Yerushalayim, Shalom to the
great Hash-m'. Nebuchadnetzar, Bal'adan's usual
scribe, was away; when he returned, he was disturbed
by the text:
i. The great Hash-m should be first! Rather, we
must write 'Shalom to the great Hash-m, Shalom
to Yerushalayim, Shalom to Melech Chizkiyah,'
4. They agreed, and said that it is proper that he
recall the letter. He ran four steps after the
messenger; Gavri'el stopped him.
5. (R. Yochanan): Had Gavri'el not stopped him,
Nebuchadnetzar's reward would have been so great
that he would have totally destroyed Yisrael.
(i) Answer: His father Bal'adan was king; his face became
like a dog's face, his son became king. To honor his
father, he would always append his father's name to his
own - "Ben Yechaved Av v'Eved Adonav".
1. "V'Eved Adonav" was fulfilled by Nevuzar'adan -
"Nevuzar'adan Rav Tabachim Amad Lifne Melech Bavel
3) NEBUCHADNETZAR BROUGHT THE CHURBAN
2. Question: Nebuchadnetzar was not in Yerushalayim -
"Va'Ya'alu Oso El Melech Bavel Rivlasah!
i. (R. Avahu): Rivlah is Antuchya.
3. Answer #1 (Rav Chisda or R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi):
Nebuchadnetzar's image was engraved on
4. Answer #2 (The other of Rav Chisda and R. Yitzchak
bar Avdimi): He had such fear of his master, it was
as if he was in front of him.
(a) (Rava): "Pitucheha Yachad b'Chashil v'Cheilapos
Yahalomun" - Nebuchadnetzar sent to Nevuzar'adan 300
mule-loads of iron axes that can cut iron; all of them
broke on one gate of Yerushalayim.
(b) Nevuzar'adan wanted to give up, lest he and his army
would be wiped out like Sancheriv. A Bas Kol (voice from
Heaven) announced 'Jumper, son of a jumper, attack now,
for the time has come for the Mikdash to be destroyed and
the Heichal to be burned.'
(c) Nevuzar'adan had one axe left; he struck the back of the
axe on the gate, it opened - "Yivada k'Mevi Lemalah
Bi'Svach Etz Kardumos" (it should be considered as if the
axe was used against Hash-m's throne).
(d) He went and killed until he reached the Heichal; he set
fire to it. The Heichal started ascending; Hash-m lowered
it - "Gas Darach Hash-m li'Vsulas Bas Yehudah".
(e) He started getting haughty - a Bas Kol announced 'You
killed a dead nation (their death was already decreed),
you burned a burnt Heichal, you grinded ground flour' -
"Kechi Rechayim v'Tachani *Kemach* (as opposed to
(f) He saw the blood of Zecharyah seething; they told him
that it is blood of Korbanos that was spilled. He
slaughtered Korbanos and saw that it was different. He
threatened an excruciating death if they would not tell
him the truth. They told him, he was a Kohen and Navi
that was prophesizing about the Churban of Yerushalayim
(hundreds of years ago), and was killed.
(g) Nevuzar'adan decided to appease the blood. He killed
Chachamim - it kept seething. He killed children learning
from their Rebbi, then young Kohanim, then 940,000 people
- it still seethed. He approached the blood and said
'Zecharyah, I killed the best of them - do you want me to
kill all of them?'
(h) The blood rested. Nevuzar'adan thought - if they were
punished so severely for killing one person, how great
will be my punishment! He did Teshuvah, sent a letter
commanding about his estate and converted.
(i) (Beraisa): Na'aman was a Ger Toshav, Nevuzar'adan was a
1. Descendants of Sisera taught Torah in Yerushalayim,
descendants of Sancheriv, (Shemayah and Avtalyon)
taught Torah to multitudes, descendants of Haman
taught Torah in Benei Berak;
(j) (Ula): Amon and Mo'av were bad neighbors of Yerushalayim
- when they heard the prophecies of the Churban they told
Nebuchadnetzar to come.
i. Hash-m wanted to make converts out of
descendants of Nebuchadnetzar, but angels
protested, for the Mikdash was destroyed and
the Heichal was burned on his command
(therefore, his descendants are not suitable to
ii. (Ula): "Ripinu Es Bavel v'Lo Nirpasa" - this
refers to Nebuchadnetzar (Hash-m sought to cure
him, i.e. atone for him; it was not fulfilled)
iii. (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): This refers to the
rivers of Bavel, i.e. they inhibit the date
trees from producing dates.
1. Nebuchadnetzar: I fear that I will be defeated, like
those before me (Sancheriv)!
2. Amon and Mo'av: "Ein ha'Ish (Hash-m) b'Veiso".
3. Nebuchadnetzar: He is near, He will return!
4. Amon and Mo'av: "Halach b'Derech me'Rachok".
5. Nebuchadnetzar: There are Tzadikim in Yisrael that
will pray, He will return!
6. Amon and Mo'av: "Tzeror *ha'Kesef* Lakach b'Yado" -
the Tzadikim already left!
7. Nebuchadnetzar: The Resha'im will do Teshuvah and
pray, He will return!
8. Amon and Mo'av: He already fixed a time (70 years of
Galus before he will return) - "L'Yom ha'Kese Yavo
9. Nebuchadnetzar: It is winter, I cannot go in the
snow and rain.
10. Amon and Mo'av: You can go under overhanging
mountains, they shield from snow and rain.
11. Nebuchadnetzar: If I go, I will have no place to
12. Amon and Mo'av: Their graves (caves, which they use
for burial) are better than your palaces, you and
your army can stay there;
i. It was foretold "Yotzi'u Es Atzmos Malchei
Yehudah...ha'Kohanim...ha'Nevi'im v'Es Atzmos
Yoshvei Yerushalayim mi'Kivreihem u'Shtachum
la'Shemesh vela'Yare'ach...va'Asher Avadum".