POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 93
1) THE MIRACLE DONE FOR CHANANYAH, MISHA'EL AND AZARYAH
(a) (R. Yochanan): Tzadikim are greater than angels - "Guvrun
Arb'ah...Revi'a'ah Dame l'Var Elahin (the angel is called
the fourth, after Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah).
2) FALSE PROPHETS BURNED IN THE FIRE
(b) (Rav Tanchum bar Chanilai): When Chananyah, Misha'el and
Azaryah left the furnace, all the nations hit Yisrael -
your G-d does such miracles for you, and you bowed to the
(c) Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah sang "Lecha Hash-m
ha'Tzedakah v'Lanu Boshes ha'Panim".
(d) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): "Amarti E'eleh b'Samar" -
Hash-m intended that Yisrael be full of Tzadikim (as a
date tree is dull of dates), but "Ochazah b'Sansinav", He
only has one branch, i.e. Chananyah, Misha'el and
(e) (R. Yochanan): "Ra'isi Laylah" - Hash-m wanted to turn
the entire world to night (destroy it, because Yisrael
bowed to the image);
1. "Al Sus Adom" - Hash-m wanted to turn the entire
world to blood; He looked at the act of Chananyah,
Misha'el and Azaryah, and was assuaged - "Ha'Hadasim
(Tzadikim - Esther was called Hadasah) Asher
ba'Metzulah (Bavel)...Mele'im Rogez...Na'asim
(f) Answer #1 (Rav): They died on account of Ayin ha'Ra;
2. (Rav Papa): (Since red horses symbolize a curse,)
this shows that white horses are a good sign in a
3. Question: What happened to Chananyah, Misha'el and
(g) Answer #2 (Shmuel): They drowned in the spit (of Nochrim
despising the Yisraelim who had bowed).
(h) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): They went to Eretz Yisrael,
married women and fathered children.
(i) Tana'im argue as the Amora'im do.
1. (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): They died on account of Ayin
(j) Question: Where had Daniel gone?
2. R. Yehoshua says, they drowned in spit;
3. Chachamim say, they went to Eretz Yisrael, married
women and fathered children - "Yehoshua ha'Kohen
ha'Gadol Ata v'Re'echa ha'Yoshevim Lefanecha Ki
Anshei Mofes Hemah"
i. Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah are the ones
for whom a Mofes (miracle) was done (and they
were in front of the Kohen Gadol, i.e. in Eretz
(k) Answer #1 (Rav): He went to dig and forge a river (some
say - to a mountain).
(l) Answer #2 (Shmuel): Nebuchadnetzar had sent him to bring
(m) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): Nebuchadnetzar had sent him to
bring pigs from Alexandria (where they are big, in order
to raise them in Bavel).
(n) Question (Mishnah): Tudus the doctor said that they cut
the wombs of all cows and pigs that leave Miztrayim (so
they will not reproduce).
(o) Answer: He took small ones, they did not think that he
took them for breeding.
(p) (Beraisa): Three parties all wanted Daniel to go -
Hash-m, Daniel and Nebuchadnetzar:
1. Hash-m wanted Daniel to go, so people would not
think that Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah were
saved in his merit;
(q) Question: What is the source that Nebuchadnetzar
2. Daniel wanted to go, for Nebuchadnetzar worshipped
him, he feared that he himself will be burned -
"Pesilei Eloheihem Tisrefun ba'Esh"!
3. Nebuchadnetzar wanted him to go, so people would not
say that Nebuchadnetzar burned his own god (Daniel).
(r) Answer: "Nebuchadnetzar Nafal Al Anpohi ul'Daniel Segid".
(a) "... Ach'av ben Kolayah v'El Tzidkiyahu ben Ma'aseyah
ha'Nib'im Lachem bi'Shmi Shaker...Asher Kalam Melech
Bavel ba'Esh" - It does not say that he burned him,
rather, Kalam (roasted);
3) THE BLESSINGS OF RUS' DESCENDANTS
1. (R. Yochanan): He parched them like grain.
(b) Question: "Va'Yna'afu Es Neshei Re'eihem" - what did they
(c) Answer: Ach'av told Nebuchadnetzar's daughter 'Hash-m
said, when Tzidkiyahu wants to have relations with you,
consent to him'; likewise, Tzidkiyahu told her that
Hash-m wants her to consent to Ach'av.
1. She told her father; he said, their G-d hates sexual
immorality - when they come, send them to me; she
did so. They told him that Hash-m commanded them.
(d) Question: Why was Yehoshua punished?
2. Nebuchadnetzar: But Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah
said that it is forbidden!
3. Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu: We are also prophets, Hash-m
permitted us, he did not permit them.
4. Nebuchadnetzar: I want to test you, like I tested
5. Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu: They were three, therefore
they had more merit to be saved - we are only two!
6. Nebuchadnetzar: Pick anyone you want to accompany
7. Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu: We want Yehoshua the Kohen
Gadol (they hoped that his merit would suffice to
8. All three of them were thrown in; Ach'av and
Tzidkiyahu were burned, Yehoshua's garments were
singed - "Yehoshua...(Ud Mutzal me'Esh)".
9. Nebuchadnetzar: I see that you (Yehoshua) are a
Tzadik - why did the fire affect you (your
garments), it did not affect Chananyah, Misha'el and
Azaryah at all!
10. Yehoshua: They were three, therefore they had more
merit - I was alone (Ach'av and Tzidkiyahu had no
11. Nebuchadnetzar: Avraham was thrown into a furnace
alone, he was totally saved!
12. Yehoshua: I had Resha'im with me - since the fire
was permitted to kill them, it also affected me;
i. This is as people say - if two dry spits are
with a wet one, they will cause it to be
(e) Answer (Rav Papa): His sons married women forbidden to
Kohanim, and he did not protest - "Vi'Hoshua Hayah Lavush
1. Question: Would the Kohen Gadol be wearing filthy
2. Answer: Rather, his sons married women forbidden to
Kohanim, and he did not protest.
(a) Question (R. Tanchum): What does it mean "Shesh ha'S'orim
ha'eleh Nosan Li" - surely, Bo'az did not give Rus a mere
six barley seeds!
(b) Answer #1: Rather, he gave her six Se'im.
4) WHY SEFER EZRA IS NOT ATTRIBUTED TO NECHEMYAH
(c) Rejection: A woman does not carry so much!
(d) Answer #2: Indeed, he gave her six barley seeds - he was
hinting that six sons will come from her, each will
receive six blessings:
1. David - "Yode'a Nagen v'Gibor Chayil v'Ish Milchamah
u'Nevon Davar v'Ish To'ar va'Shem Imo";
(e) (R. Elazar): "Va'Yhi Bahem mi'Bnei Yehudah Daniel
Chananyah, Misha'el va'Azaryah" - all of them are from
i. (Rav Yehudah): This entire verse was Lashon
ha'Ra (Do'eg praised David to make Sha'ul envy
2. Regarding Mashi'ach it says "V'Nachah Alav Ru'ach
Hash-m Ru'ach Chachmah u'Vinah Ru'ach Etzah u'Gvurah
Ru'ach Da'as v'Yir'as Hash-m".
ii. Yode'a Nagen - he knows how to ask; Gibor - he
knows how to answer; Ish Milchamah - he can
debate in Torah; Navon - he understands a
matter by means of another matter; Ish To'ar -
he brings proof for what he says; va'Shem Imo -
the Halachah always follows him.
iii. Regarding the first five, Sha'ul said 'this is
also true about my son Yonason'; regarding
va'Shem Imo, which was not even true about
Sha'ul himself, Sha'ul was demoralized and
iv. Question: What is the source that this was true
about David, but not about Sha'ul?
v. Answer: Regarding Sha'ul it says "Uv'Chol Asher
Yifneh Yarshi'a"; regarding David it says
"Uv'Chol Asher Yifneh Yatzli'ach".
vi. Question: What is the source that Do'eg is the
one who said "Yode'a Nagen..."?
vii. Answer: "Va'Ya'an Echad meha'Ne'arim" - the
most special one, "Do'eg ha'Edomi, Abir
i. (R. Alexandri): "*Va'Haricho* b'Yir'as Hash-m"
- this teaches that Hash-m loaded Mashi'ach
with Mitzvos and afflictions like a Reichayim
3. Regarding Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah it says
"Ein Bahem Kol Mum v'Tovei Mar'eh u'Maskilim b'Chol
Chachmah v'Yod'ei Da'as u'Mevinei Mada va'Asher
Bahem Ko'ach...u'Lelamdam Sefer u'Lshon Kasdim".
ii. (Rava): "Va'Haricho..." teaches that he is
Morach (smells, i.e. senses who is guilty) and
judges - "V'Lo l'Mar'e Einav Yishpot...v'Shofat
iii. Bar Koziva ruled for two and a half years, and
told Chachamim that he is Mashi'ach. Chachamim
tested him, they saw that he cannot judge by
'smell', they killed him (Ramah - like a false
prophet (our Gemara argues with the Medrash
that Romi killed him)).
i. Question: What does it mean "Ein Bahem Kol
ii. Answer (R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): They did not
even have a wound from bloodletting.
iii. Question: What does it mean "Va'Asher Bahem
Ko'ach La'amod b'Heichal ha'Melech"?
iv. Answer (R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): When in
front of the king they would not joke,
converse, sleep, or go to relieve themselves,
on account of fear of the king.
(f) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Daniel is from Yehudah,
"Mi'Bnei Yehudah" does not refer to Chananyah, Misha'el
and Azaryah, they are from other Shevatim.
(g) Question: "Umi'Banecha...Sarisim b'Heichal Melech Bavel"
- what does "Sarisim" refer to?
(h) Answer #1 (Rav): It is literal (they were castrated).
(i) Answer #2 (R. Chanina): Idolatry was castrated in their
days (the Yetzer ha'Ra for it was abolished).
(j) Question: According to R. Chanina, we understand
"Va'Chaval Lo Isi Behon (they have no blemish)" - but
according to Rav, they were blemished!
(k) Answer: It means that the fire made no mark on them.
(l) Question: But it also says "V'Re'ach Nur Lo Adas Behon
((even) the smoke of the fire did not impart a smell to
(m) Answer: The verses teach that the fire made no mark and
the smoke did not leave a smell.
(n) Question: According to R. Chanina, "La'Sarisim Asher
Yishmeru Es Shabsosai" is not derogatory;
1. But according to Rav, why does the verse speak this
way about Tzadikim?
(o) Answer: He holds that they were castrated *and* idolatry
was castrated in their days, "La'Sarisim..." refers to
castration of idolatry.
(p) Question: According to Rav, we understand "...Yad va'Shem
Tov mi'Banim umi'Banos" (implying that they will not have
children) - but how does R. Chanina understand it?
(q) Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It will be better than
the children they had who already died.
(r) Question: What does it mean "Shem Olam Eten Lo Asher Lo
(s) Answer (R. Tanchum): This is Sefer Daniel, which is
called by his name.
(a) Question: Most of Sefer Ezra was written by Nechemyah -
why wasn't it called by his name?
(b) Answer #1 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): Because he took credit
for himself - "Zochrah Li Elokai l'Tovah".
1. Question: Why is this called crediting himself -
David also said "Zochreni Hash-m...Pokdeni
(c) Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): Because he denigrated the earlier
leaders - "Veha'Pachos ha'Rishonim Asher Lefanai Hichbidu
2. Answer: David was asking for mercy.
1. He even spoke down about Daniel, who was greater
2. Question: What is the source that Daniel was greater
3. Answer: "Ve'Ra'isi Ani Daniel...veha'Anashim Asher
Hayu Imadi Lo Ra'u";
i. Question: Who were the people with Daniel?
4. [In this respect, Daniel was greater than them - in
another respect, they were greater than him, they
were Nevi'im, he was not - most texts delete this
ii. Answer (R. Yirmeyah): Chagai, Zecharyah and
Malachi. (Daniel was greater than Nevi'im, all
the more so he was greater than Nechemyah!)