POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 63
SANHEDRIN 63 (8 Kislev) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas: Shoshana Raizel bas Reb
Yisrael Leib -- Mrs. Rose Shaw -- on the second Yahrzeit of her passing, by
her son, Dr. Allen Shaw (Atlanta), and grandchildren, Sheila Jutan and
family (Singapore) and Yisrael Shaw and family (Jerusalem).
1) LIABILITY FOR MANY "AVODOS"
(a) (R. Ami): If someone did Zevichah, Haktarah and Nisuch in
one He'elam, he is liable only one Korban.
2) LIABILITY FOR ACCEPTANCE OF IDOLATRY
(b) (Abaye): He learns from "V'Lo So'ovdem" that all Avodos
are considered one.
(c) Question: But Abaye taught that they are not one!
1. (Abaye): Hishtachava'ah is mentioned three times
regarding idolatry - one obligates for bowing when
this is its normal Avodah, one obligates when it is
not the normal Avodah, and one is Mechalek the
(d) Answer: Abaye merely explains R. Ami's reasoning, he
argues with it.
(e) (Abaye): Hishtachava'ah is mentioned three times
regarding idolatry - one obligates for bowing when this
is its normal Avodah, one obligates when it is not the
normal Avodah, and one is Mechalek the Avodos.
(f) Question: "Eichah Ya'avdu" already obligates for its
(g) Correction: Rather, one obligates bowing when this
resembles its normal Avodah (i.e. the idolatry is
normally served in an honorable way), one obligates when
it is unlike the normal Avodah (the idolatry is normally
served through disgrace), and one is Mechalek the Avodos.
(a) (Mishnah): If he accepts it as a god, if he says 'You are
3) NEGATIVE PROHIBITIONS OF IDOLATRY
(b) (Rav Nachman): Once he says 'You are my god' he is
(c) Question: Which liability does Rav Nachman teaches about?
1. If he teaches that he is Chayav Misah - our Mishnah
(d) Answer: He teaches that he must bring a Korban.
(e) Question: Is this even according to Chachamim?!
1. (Beraisa): One is liable (to bring a Korban) only
for an action, such as slaughtering, burning,
Nisuch, or bowing.
(f) Answer: Rav Nachman teaches according to R. Akiva.
2. (Reish Lakish): The Beraisa obligates for bowing -
it is like R. Akiva, who does not require a (big)
(g) Objection: This is obvious, he obligates for Megadef!
(h) Answer: One might have thought, R. Akiva only obligates
for Megadef by which it explicitly says Kares, but not
for accepting idolatry;
1. Rav Nachman teaches, this is not so, for the Torah
equates them - "Vayishtachavu Lo va'Yizbechu Lo".
(i) (R. Yochanan): (In the Parshah of the Egel, it says "Eleh
Elokecha Yisrael Asher *He'elucha* (plural)", connoting
that the Egel was one of the Powers that redeemed us,
i.e. with Hash-m;) had they said 'Ha'alcha' (singular,
i.e. it alone redeemed us), Benei Yisrael would have been
worthy to be destroyed.
(j) Tana'im argue about this.
1. (Beraisa - Others): Had they said 'Ha'alcha' instead
of "He'elucha", Benei Yisrael would have been worthy
to be destroyed;
2. Objection (R. Shimon): Anyone who says that Hash-m
has a partner, he is uprooted from the world (this
is worse than denying Hash-m)!
i. Rather, "He'elucha" teaches that they desired
to worship many gods.
(a) (Mishnah): The following are forbidden by a Lav - hugging
and kissing, sweeping or spraying...
(b) (Rav Dimi citing R. Elazar): One is lashed for any of
these, except for vowing or swearing in the name of
(c) Objection: One is not lashed for these because they are
Lavim which do not involve an action;
1. One should not be lashed for the others either, they
are Lavim shebi'Chlalos (different transgressions
forbidden by one Lav), one is not lashed for such
(d) (Ravin citing R. Elazar): One is lashed for the Lavim
listed in the Mishnah (hugging and kissing...), except
for vowing or swearing in the name of idolatry.
2. (Beraisa): One who eats from an animal before it
dies transgresses a Lav - "Lo Sochlu Al ha'Dam";
3. Also, this forbids eating a Korban before the blood
is thrown on the Mizbe'ach.
4. R. Dosa says, this teaches that we do not Mavreh
(serve to mourners the first meal after the burial)
for people killed by Beis Din.
5. R. Akiva says, this teaches that Beis Din does not
eat on the day they kill someone.
6. (R. Yochanan): This is the warning not to become a
Ben Sorer u'Moreh.
7. (R. Avin bar Chiya): One is not lashed for any of
these because they are Lavim shebi'Chlalos.
(e) Objection: One is not lashed for the others because they
are Lavim shebi'Chlalos;
1. One should not be lashed for vowing and swearing
either, they are Lavim without an action!
(f) Answer: Ravin's law is according to R. Yehudah, who says
that one is lashed for a Lav without an action.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "Lo
Sosiru...(veha'Nosar...ba'Esh Tisrofu)" - the verse
gives an Ase to fix the Lav, therefore one is not
lashed for it.
4) MENTIONING IDOLATRY
2. (R. Yakov): No, one is not lashed because this Lav
is transgressed without an action, one is not lashed
for such Lavim.
(g) (Mishnah): A Lav forbids vowing or swearing in the name
i. Inference: R. Yehudah holds that one is lashed
for such Lavim.
(h) Question: What is the source of these?
(i) Answer (Beraisa): "V'Shem Elohim Acherim Lo Sazkiru" -
do not say, 'Wait for me by idol Plonis';
1. "Lo Yishma Al Picha" - do not vow or swear in the
name of idolatry, do not cause others to do so.
2. Alternatively, this is a warning not to entice (an
individual) or Medi'ach (entice a multitude).
3. Objection: "V'Chol Yisrael Yishme'u v'Yira'un" warns
not to entice!
4. Correction: Rather, alternatively, this is a warning
not to Medi'ach.
(a) The Beraisa forbids causing others to vow or swear in the
name of idolatry - this supports Shmuel's father.
5) RIDICULING IDOLS
1. (Shmuel's father): It is forbidden to make a
partnership with a Nochri, lest the Nochri will have
to swear, and he will swear in the name of idolatry
- the Yisrael transgresses "Lo Yishma Al Picha".
(b) Rava (to Ula): Where did you lodge?
(c) Ula: I lodged in Kalnevo (a city named for its idolatry).
(d) Rava: But it says, "V'Shem Elohim Acherim Lo Sazkiru"!
(e) Ula: R. Yochanan taught, it is permitted to mention any
idolatry mentioned in the Torah.
(f) Question: Where is Kalnevo mentioned?
(g) Answer: "Kara Bel Kores Nevo" (Kalnevo is a derogatory
form of Nevo).
(h) Inference: If it was not mentioned in the Torah, it would
be forbidden to mention it.
(i) Question (Rav Mesharshiya - Mishnah): If a man had an
emission (of Zivah) that endured as long as three
emissions, i.e. the time needed to walk from Gadiyon (an
idolatry) to Shilo, which is the time to immerse and dry
oneself twice, he is a full Zav.
(j) Answer (Ravina): Gad (for which Gadiyon is named) is
mentioned in the Torah - "ha'Orchim la'Gad Shulchan".
(a) (Rav Nachman): All scoffery is forbidden, except for
ridiculing idolatry - "Kara Bel Kores Nevo...Lo Yachlu
Malet Masa (the idols could not hold in their excrement)
...u'Chmarav Alav Yagilu Al *Kevodo*", we read this
'Keveido' (its priests rejoiced that the idols with their
feces were taken away).
(b) Question (R. Yitzchak): What does it mean "Va'Ya'asu
Lahem Masechah Kisvunim Atzabim"?
(c) Answer: This teaches that everyone had an image of his
idolatry in his pocket, when he would mention it, he
would take it out and hug and kiss it.
(d) Question: What does it mean "Zovchei Adam Agalim
(e) Answer (R. Yitzchak d'vei R. Ami): The priests of
idolatry schemed to get money from rich people;
1. They would starve a calf (of idolatry), and put
images of a rich person by the feeding trough. When
the calf would see the person, it would run to it
(hoping for food); the priest would say, 'This shows
that it wants you to sacrifice yourself to it' (and
the priests would take his money).
(f) Objection (Rava): If so, it should say 'Yishakun
Lizvo'ach Adam' (the priests say, it kisses you because
it wants you to sacrifice yourself) - "Zovchei Adam
Agalim Yishakun" connotes, they kiss one who already
sacrificed a person!
(g) Answer #2 (Rava): Rather, it teaches that if someone
slaughtered his son to idolatry, they would say 'You
offered a great Korban, now you may kiss the idol.'
(h) (Rav Yehudah): "V'Anshei Vavel Asu Es Sukos Benos" - this
(idol) was a hen;
1. "V'Anshei Kush Asu Es Nergal" - this was a rooster;
"v'Anshei Chamas Asu Es Ashima" - a goat; "veha'Avim
Asu Nivchaz v'Es Tartak" - a dog and a donkey;
"veha'Sefarvim Sorefim Es Beneihem l'Adramelech
va'Anamelech" - a mule and a horse.
(i) (Rav Yehudah): Yisrael knew that idolatry does nothing -
they served in order to cast off the yoke of Torah and
publicly indulge in their true lust, Arayos.
i. 'Adramelech' - a mule is Mehadar (honors) its
Melech (master, it carries his burden);
2. Achaz wanted to burn his son Chizkiyah in the fire
to idolatry, but Chizkiyah's mother had anointed him
with blood of the Salmandra (a certain Chayah, which
made him invulnerable to fire).
ii. 'Anamelech' - a horse is Oneh (answers) its
master's needs in war.
(j) Question (Rav Mesharshiya): "Ki'Zchor Beneihem
1. (R. Elazar): This is like a man who longs for his
son (they really wanted to serve)!
(k) Answer: After they were steeped in it, they felt attached
(l) Question: "Venosati Es Pigreichem Al Pigrei Giluleichem"
- Eliyahu was walking among the starved, swollen bellied
people in Yerushalayim (at the time of the Churban);
once, he saw a boy in a wasteheap. The boy told him that
he was the last remnant of his family.
1. Eliyahu: Do you want to learn something that will
give you life? Every day, say "Shma Yisrael Hash-m
Elokeinu Hash-m Echad"!
(m) Answer: After they were steeped in it, they felt attached
2. The boy: I refuse to mention the name of Hash-m, for
my parents did not teach it to me!
3. The boy took out his idol, hugged and kissed it
until his stomach burst; the idol fell to the
ground, and he fell on it - "Venosati Es Pigreichem
Al Pigrei Giluleichem".