POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 19
1) YIBUM OF A KOHEN GADOL
(a) (Mishnah): He can do Chalitzah, his widow can do
Chalitzah (but he may not do Yibum, for he is forbidden
to marry a widow).
2) IF A KOHEN GADOL'S RELATIVE DIES
(b) We do not distinguish whether his Yevamah fell to Yibum
from Kidushin or Nisu'in.
(c) We understand why he cannot Meyabem a Yevamah from
Nisu'in - she is forbidden to a Kohen Gadol by a Lav (she
is a widow) and an Ase (she is not a virgin), an Ase
(Yibum) does not override a Lav and an Ase.
(d) Question: Why can't he Meyabem a Yevamah from Kidushin -
she is only forbidden by a Lav, the Ase of Yibum should
(e) Answer: Mid'Oraisa, he may Meyabem - Chachamim decreed
against this, lest he have relations with her a second
time (which is forbidden by a Lav - the Mitzvah of Yibum
is only the first marital act).
(f) Support (Beraisa): If a Yavam (whose Yavamah is forbidden
by a Lav) did Yibum, he acquired her (she is married to
him); it is forbidden to have a second act of relations.
(a) (Mishnah - R. Meir): If one of his close relatives
3) THE CONSOLATION LINE
(b) (Beraisa): "U'Min ha'Mikdash Lo Yetzei" - he does not go
with the procession, but he follows after them: when the
procession moves to a new area, he enters the previous
area it passed.
(c) (Mishnah): Until they reach the gate of Yerushalayim. (R.
Yehudah says, he does not leave the Mikdash - "U'Min
ha'Mikdash Lo Yetzei".)
(d) Question: How can R. Meir answer this?!
(e) Answer: If we understand as R. Yehudah, the Kohen Gadol
may not go home either!
1. Rather, it means he does not leave his *Kedushah*
(he may not become Tamei).
(f) (Mishnah): When he consoles others...
2. Since he may not go with the procession, this
reminds him not to become Tamei.
3. R. Yehudah says, out of sorrow he may come to
(g) (Beraisa): When he goes to console (mourners standing in
a line), the Segan (the Kohen ready to replace him if
this will be required) and the Meshuach She'avar (one who
once substituted for the Kohen Gadol) are on his right
side, the Av Beis Din, mourners and everyone else are on
1. When he stands in the line and others console him,
the Segan is on his right side, the Av Beis Din and
everyone else are on his left;
2. Inference: The Meshuach She'avar does not come to
3. Question: What is the reason?
4. Answer: The Kohen Gadol might think 'He is happy
about my loss.'
(a) (Rav Papa): We learn three things from this Beraisa:
4) SPECIAL LAWS OF KINGS
1. The Segan is the Memuneh (mentioned in the Mishnah);
(b) (Beraisa): At first, the mourners would stand and
everyone would pass;
2. The mourners stand still and everyone else passes;
3. The mourners stand on the left of the consolers
(when he goes to console, the mourners are on his
1. There were two families in Yerushalayim that fought
over which would pass first; they enacted that the
consolers stand and the mourners pass.
(c) (Rami bar Aba): In Tzipori, R. Yosi returned the custom
as it used to be (the mourners stand, everyone else
(d) (Rami bar Aba): In Tzipori, R. Yosi enacted that a woman
should not walk in the market with her son in back of
her, on account of an incident. (People kidnapped her
son; they told her where he was, and molested her when
she went there.)
(e) (Rami bar Aba): In Tzipori, R. Yosi enacted that women
should talk with each other in the Beis ha'Kisei, so a
man will know not to go there (lest he be secluded with
(f) Question (Rav Menasiya bar Avas): What is the minimal
size of a condolence line?
(g) Answer (R. Yoshiyah): It is at least 10, not including
1. This is true whether the mourners stand and everyone
passes or vice-versa.
(h) (Mishnah): When he is consoled, they say...
(i) Question: When he consoles others, what does he say?
(j) Answer (Beraisa): And he says 'You should be consoled'.
(k) Question: What is the case?
1. If they are consoling him - this is like a curse
that they should (become mourners and) need
(l) Answer: He consoles others (by saying this).
(a) (Mishnah): A king does not judge...
(b) (Rav Yosef): This only applies to kings of Yisrael, but
kings of Beis David judge and are judged - "Beis
David...Dino la'Boker Mishpat".
1. If they could not be judged, they could not judge!
(c) Question: Why don't we judge kings of Yisrael?
2. (Reish Lakish): "Hiskosheshu va'Koshu" - first fix
yourself, then correct others.
(d) Answer: An episode occurred, Melech Yanai's slave killed
someone; Shimon ben Shetach told Chachamim to judge him.
1. They told Yanai that his slave killed someone; Yanai
sent him. They told Yanai that he should be there
when his slave is judged - just as an ox is judged
in front of its owner - "V'Hu'ad Bi'V'alav". Yanai
came; he sat down.
2. Shimon ben Shetach: You must stand - not for us, but
because you are in front of Hash-m - "V'Omedu Shnei
3. Yanai: I will not listen to you, rather, to the
5) ONE WHO RAISES ANOTHER'S CHILDREN
4. The other judges looked down (they feared Yanai);
Shimon ben Shetach said that Hash-m should punish
them - the angel Gavri'el killed them all.
(e) (Mishnah): He does not do Chalitzah; his widow does not
do Chalitzah...(R. Yehudah says, if he wants to do
Chalitzah or Yibum, he may, he is praised for this.)
5. It was enacted then that kings of Yisrael do not
judge, we do not judge them; they do not testify, we
do not testify against them.
(f) Question: But Rav Ashi taught, even according to the
opinion that a Nasi can pardon his honor, a king cannot -
"Som Tasim Alecha Melech"! (In Chalitzah, the Yevamah
spits at the Yavam.)
(g) Answer: He can pardon his honor for the sake of a
(h) (Mishnah): One may not marry a king's widow (R. Yehudah
says, he may, we learn from David - "Va'Etnah
(i) (Beraisa): Chachamim answered: No - that refers to
Sha'ul's *daughters*, Merav and Michal (but Sha'ul's
widows were forbidden to David).
(j) Question: How could David marry two sisters in each
(k) Answer #1 (R. Yosi): He married Michal after Merav died.
(l) Answer #2 (R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): He was never truly
married to Merav, it was mistaken Kidushin - "Tenah Es
Ishti Es Michal..."
(m) Question: How do we learn this from the verse?
(n) Answer (Rav Papa): Only Michal is Ishti (my wife), not
(o) Question: What was the mistaken Kidushin?
(p) Answer: "Ha'Ish Asher Yakenu Yaserenu ha'Melech Osher
Gadol v'Es Bito Yiten Lo" - and David killed Galyus;
1. Sha'ul: I owe you money (for killing Galyus) - a
loan does not make Kidushin.
(q) Question: What does R. Yosi learn from "Tenah Es Ishti Es
2. Sha'ul gave Merav to Adri'el - "V'Hi Nitenah
3. Sha'ul: If you want to marry Michal, bring me 100
foreskins of Plishtim. (David did so.)
4. Sha'ul: These are worth a Perutah, but I also owe
i. Sha'ul held that Kidushin made with a loan and
a Perutah is invalid because she intends to
become Mekudeshes through the loan, and this is
5. Alternatively: Sha'ul agreed that she intends to
become Mekudeshes through the Perutah; he said that
the foreskins have no value, David did not give a
ii. David held that it is valid, she intends to
become Mekudeshes through the Perutah.
i. David believed that they are worth a Perutah,
one can feed them to dogs and cats.
(r) Answer (Beraisa - R. Yosi): We expound different verses
as if they were written together: "...Chameshes Benei
Michal Bas Sha'ul Asher Yoledah l'Adri'el".
1. Question: Michal was not given to Adri'el, rather to
Palti ben Layish - "V'Sha'ul Nasan Es Michal Bito
Eshes David l'Palti ben Layish"!
2. Answer: Rather, the verse equates Merav's Kidushin
to Adri'el to that of Michal to Palti ben Layish:
just as the latter was invalid (because she was
Mekudeshes to David), also the former!
(a) Question: What does R. Yehoshua ben Korchah learn from
"Benei Michal...Asher Yoledah l'Adri'el?
1. Question: They were not Michal's sons, rather
(b) Answer (to both questions): They were Merav's sons;
Michal raised them, so they are called her sons;
1. This teaches that one who raises an orphan is
credited as if he fathered him.
(c) R. Chanina learns this from "...Yulad Ben
1. Question: He was not No'omi's son, rather, Rus' son!
(d) (R. Yochanan): We learn from "Yered Avi Gedor...(names of
Moshe) Benei Bisyah Vas Paro Asher Lakach Mared".
2. Answer: Even though he was Rus' son, because No'omi'
raised him, he is called No'omi's son.
1. Mared is Kalev - he is called Mared because he
rebelled against the counsel of the other Meraglim.
(e) (R. Elazar): We learn from "Ga'alta bi'Zro'a Amecha Benei
2. Question: Moshe was not Basyah's son, rather,
3. Answer: Even though he was Yocheved's son, because
Basyah raised him, he is called her son.
1. Question: Benei Yisrael descend from Yakov, (most
are) not from Yosef!
(f) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Anyone who teaches another's
child Torah, the Torah considers him to have fathered him
- "V'Aleh Toldos Aharon u'Moshe";
2. Answer: Since Yosef provided their food, they are
called by his name.
1. Aharon fathered them, Moshe taught them, they are
called Moshe's children.
(g) Question: "Beis Yakov Asher Padah Es Avraham" - where do
we find that Yakov redeemed Avraham?
(h) Answer (Rav Yehudah): He redeemed him from (i.e. bore
himself) the pain of raising (Rashi - many) children.
1. "Lo Ata Yevosh Yakov" - now (after enduring this
awesome burden,) Yakov is not ashamed in front of
(i) Question: We find that Palti'el is called Palti!
2. "Lo Ata Panav Yechevaru" - now he is not ashamed in
front of Avraham.
(j) Answer (R. Yochanan): His name is Palti; he is called
Palti'el because Palto Kel (Hash-m saved him from
1. He put a knife between himself and Michal and said
'Whoever will engage in relations, he will be
stabbed with this sword'.
(k) Version #1 - Rashi - (R. Yochanan): Yosef's great deed
was a small matter for Bo'az; Bo'az' great deed was a
small matter for Palti ben Layish.
2. Question: But it says "Va'Yelech Itah Ishah" (we was
3. Answer: He was *like* a husband to her (he raised
and cared for her like a husband).
4. Question: "Halach u'Vacho" (if he never really
married her, why was he so upset when she was
5. Answer: He cried because he lost the Mitzvah (of
overcoming his temptation for her).
i. "Ad Bachorim" - they were like singles (they
did not have relations).
1. Yosef's great deed was a small matter for Bo'az
(Yosef was tempted by a married woman, Bo'az was
tempted by a single girl (Rus) in bed with him) -
"Va'Yecherad ha'Ish Vayilafes"
(l) Version #2 - Ramah - (R. Yochanan): Yosef had to muster
all his strength to overcome his temptation (he
originally wanted to sin), much more than Bo'az; Bo'az
had to fight to overcome temptation, Palti ben Layish did
not. (End of Version #2)
1. Question: What does it mean "Va'Yecherad ha'Ish
2. Answer (Rav): His Ever became hard like a turnip.
3. Version #1 - Ramah: This shows that Bo'az had to
fight to overcome temptation.
4. Version #2 - Rashi: Bo'az' great deed was a small
matter for Palti ben Layish (Bo'az was tempted for
one night, Palti was tempted for years).