POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 16
ROSH HASHANAH 16 (7 Menachem Av) - dedicated by the wife and daughters of
the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of
Queens N.Y. on his second Yarzeit. Well known in the community for his
Chesed and Tzedakah, he will be remembered by all who knew him.
1) MISHNAH: THE FOUR JUDGMENTS OF THE YEAR
(a) On Pesach, judgment is passed concerning produce.
2) THE JUDGMENT OF PRODUCE
(b) On Shavuos, judgment is passed concerning fruit.
(c) On Rosh Hashanah, all the world passes like Bnei Maron
(d) On Sukos, judgment is passed concerning water.
(a) Question: Which produce is being judged?
3) THE AUTHORSHIP OF THE MISHNAH
1. Answer: The produce presently in the fields.
(b) Answer: It refers to the produce that is due to be sown.
2. Question: When was judgment passed for the things
that happened to it until now?
(c) Question: This implies that one judgment is passed for
each crop, but we see otherwise in a Beraisa:
1. If calamity befalls a crop before Pesach, it was
decided in the previous year.
(d) Answer (Rava): Two judgments are passed on each crop.
2. If it happens after Pesach, it was decided this
3. If calamity befalls a person before Yom Kipur, it
was decided in the previous year.
4. If it happens after Yom Kipur, it was decided this
(e) (Abaye): Therefore, if a person sees his slow crops
doing well, he should quickly plant some fast-growing
crops (as it is a year of a good verdict).
(a) Question: Who does the Mishnah follow?
4) THE JUDGMENT OF MAN
1. The Gemara cites four opinions in a Beraisa that
differ from the Mishnah:
(b) Answer: The Mishnah follows R. Yehudah and is referring
to the verdicts.
i. (R. Meir) Everything is judged on Rosh
Hashanah and the verdicts are sealed on Yom
ii. (R. Yehudah) Everything is judged on Rosh
Hashanah and the verdicts are sealed on
different dates; Pesach for produce, Shavuos
for fruit, Sukos for water and Yom Kipur for
iii. (R. Yosi) Man is judged every day, as derived
from a Pasuk.
iv. (R. Nosson) Man is judged every moment, as
derived from Pasuk.
(c) Question: The Mishnah sets the date for man as Rosh
Hashanah (not Yom Kipur)!?
(d) Answer (Rava): The Mishnah refers to the beginning of
the judgment process and follows Tana d'Bei R. Yishmael:
1. On Pesach, judgment is passed concerning produce.
2. On Shavuos, judgment is passed concerning fruit.
3. On Sukos, judgment is passed concerning water.
4. Man is judged on Rosh Hashanah and his verdict is
sealed on Yom Kipur.
(a) Question (R. Chisda): What is the reason of R. Yosi
(that man is judged every day)?
1. Answer: He gave a Pasuk as his reason!?
(b) Answer (R. Chisda): R. Yosi's source is a Pasuk that
speaks of daily judgment.
2. Question: Why didn't he say the same as R. Nosson?
3. Answer: R. Nosson's Pasuk is only referring to
Hashem studying man.
4. Question: The same could be said for R. Yosi's
1. This Pasuk also teaches us that a king is judged
before his people.
(c) (R. Yosef) Our daily prayer for the sick is in
accordance with R. Yosi's view that man is judged daily.
2. The reason is that it is improper for him to have
to wait in line.
3. Alternately, the reason is that he should be judged
before the Judge grows angry.
1. Alternately, it follows the Rabanan, in accordance
with R. Yitzchak's view that prayer helps even
after a verdict has been passed.
(d) (R. Yehudah citing R. Akiva) The Omer is brought on
Pesach to influence the judgment for the crops which
takes place at that time.
1. The Two Loaves are brought on Shavuos to influence
the judgment for fruit which takes place at that
2. The water-libation takes place on Sukos to
influence the judgment for rains which takes place
at that time.
3. On Rosh Hashanah we say Malchuyos to accept
Hashem's sovereignty, Zichronos to raise a
remembrance of us before Him, with the aid of the
(a) (R. Avahu) We use a ram's horn for a Shofar to allude to
the Akeidah of Yitzchak.
1. Hashem then considers it as though we bound
ourselves in an Akeidah.
(b) Question (R. Yizchak): Why do we blow Shofar on Rosh
1. Answer: Because the Torah said so!
(c) Answer: Doing the mitzvah twice confounds the Satan.
2. Question: Rather, why do we blow a Teruah?
3. Answer: Because the Torah said so!
4. Question: Rather, why do we blow Tekiyah and Teruah
both before and during the Amidah?
(d) (R. Yitzchak) Any year where Shofar was not blown at its
beginning will suffer misfortune at its end.
6) R. YITZCHAK'S STATEMENTS ON JUDGMENT AND FESTIVALS
1. The reason is that the Satan was not confounded.
(a) (R. Yitzchak) in any year where the people humbled
themselves at the beginning, they will prosper at its
end, as derived from a Pasuk.
7) THE BOOKS OF JUDGMENT
(b) A person is judged according to his deeds at that time,
as derived from a Pasuk about Yishmael.
(c) Three things remind Hashem of a person's sins:
1. If he walks under a collapsing wall;
(d) Four things tear up the verdict against a person:
2. If he is confident in the power of his prayer;
3. If he calls on Hashem to judge his case against
i. (R. Chanan) Anyone who calls on Hashem to
judge their case against another is themselves
punished first, as derived from Sarah.
1. Charity, as derived from a Pasuk;
(e) A person must greet his teacher on all festive days, as
derived from a Pasuk.
2. Crying out in prayer, as derived from a Pasuk;
3. Changing one's name, as derived from a Pasuk about
4. Changing one's ways, as derived from the episode of
5. Some add: Changing one's place of residence;
i. This is derived from Avraham moving to Eretz
Yisrael to become a great nation.
ii. Others attribute that to the merit of Eretz
(f) A person must purify himself before each festival, as
derived from a Pasuk.
1. (Beraisa) The Pasuk prohibits touching a dead
2. It can't be referring to a general ban even for
Yisraelim, as they aren't even prohibited from
3. It must be referring to a requirement to purify
oneself before a festival.
(a) (R. Kruspada'i citing R. Yochanan) Three books are
opened on Rosh Hashanah:
8) THE BERAISA OF PEOPLES' JUDGMENTS
1. That of the utterly righteous - who are signed and
sealed immediately for life;
(b) (R. Avin) This is all derived from a Pasuk (as cited).
2. That of the utterly wicked - who are signed and
sealed immediately for death;
3. That of intermediate people - whose fate is
undecided until Yom Kipur.
i. If they merit it, they are signed for life;
ii. Otherwise, they are signed for death.
(c) (R. Nachman bar Yitzchak) It is derived from a different
Pasuk (as cited).
(a) (Beis Shamai) There are three groups of people on the
day of judgment:
1. The utterly righteous are signed and sealed
immediately for eternal life;
2. The utterly wicked are signed and sealed
immediately for Gehinom;
3. Intermediate people descend to Gehinom, cry out and
emerge, as derived from a Pasuk.
i. (Beis Hillel) Hashem tilts the scales in their
favor (so they avoid Gehinom).