POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 4
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) DARYAVESH TURNING EVIL
(a) Question (R. Kahana): Did Daryavesh really turn evil (we
find that he gave many gifts to the Kohanim)!?
2) THE NEW YEAR FOR FESTIVALS
(b) Answer #1 (R. Yitzchak): He only gave them gifts so that
they would pray for him.
1. Question: Is that not appropriate (we find in a
Beraisa that if someone gives money to charity so
that his children should live long lives and he
should merit the World-to-Come, he is utterly
(c) Answer #2: Daryavesh was evil in that he built wood into
the walls of the Beis haMikdash, so that he could burn it
in the event of a dispute with the Jews.
2. Answer: It is befitting for a Jew, but not for a
non-Jew (who will be resentful if his prayer is not
1. Question: King Shlomo also built wood into the
(d) Answer #3 (R. Yosef/ R. Yitzchak): He was evil in that
the Pasuk states that the "Shegal" sat beside him; Rabah
bar Leima states that Shegal is a female dog.
2. Answer: Shlomo placed the wood above the stone,
embedded it inside the wall, and covered it with
1. Question: There is a Pasuk that speaks of the
Shegal drinking wine!?
(e) Answer #4: He turned evil in that he later placed limits
on the extent of his gifts.
2. Answer: A dog can be trained to drink wine.
3. Question: There is a prophecy that the Shegal shall
stand for Israel!?
4. Answer: It means that Torah is as beloved to Israel
as a dog is to non-Jews.
5. Alternate answer: Shegal means "queen"; Rabah bar
Leima had a tradition that in this case, she was a
dog, so called because it was as beloved as a queen
or because it sat on the queen's throne.
1. Question: Perhaps his wealth became limited!?
2. Answer: One of the former answers must be correct.
(a) Question: How can the new year begin on the first of
Nisan when Pesach is on the fifteenth?
3) THE BERAISA OF BAL T'ACHER
(b) Answer (R. Chisda): It means that Nisan is the month
whose festival is the new year for festivals.
(c) The relevance of the new year for festivals is for
someone who vows to bring a Korban - to set a date after
which he transgresses the sin of Bal T'acher (bringing it
late), following the view of R. Shimon in the Beraisa:
1. (Tana Kama) When three festivals have elapsed, one
transgresses Bal T'acher.
(d) Similarly R. Shimon bar Yochai: Pesach must begin the
sequence, thus sometimes four or five festivals will pass
before Bal T'acher is transgressed.
2. (R. Shimon) The three festivals must be in sequence
with Pesach first.
(a) The items in question: Damin, Arachin, Charamin, Hekdesh,
Chatas, Ashamos, Olos, Shelamim, Tzedakos, Ma'asros,
Bechor, Ma'aser Behemah, Korban Pesach, Leket, Shikchah
(b) (Tana Kama) Bal T'acher is transgressed after three
festivals have passed (in any order).
(c) (R. Shimon) The three festivals must be in sequence with
4) THE REASONS FOR THE OPINIONS IN BAL T'ACHER
(d) (R. Meir) Bal T'acher is transgressed after a single
festival has passed.
(e) (R. Eliezer b. Yakov) Bal T'acher is transgressed after
two festivals have passed.
(f) (R. Eliezer b. Shimon) Bal T'acher is transgressed after
Sukos has passed.
(a) The Tana Kama's reason is that the context is anyway
referring to the three festivals; the repeated listing of
them teaches us that Bal T'acher is transgressed after
three have passed.
5) ANALYZING R. MEIR AND R. ELIEZER B. YAKOV
(b) R. Shimon's reason is that Sukos need not be mentioned,
as that is the immediate context; its mention tells us
that it must be last in the sequence.
(c) R. Meir's reason is that the Torah tells him to bring it;
hence, he transgresses Bal T'acher after missing one such
1. The Rabbanan derive from here that it is a positive
mitzvah but there is no sin in failing to do so.
(d) R. Eliezer b. Yakov's reason is that the Torah speaks of
festivals in the plural; thus, he transgresses Bal
T'acher after two festivals have elapsed.
2. R. Meir: If the Torah wants something to be done,
then failing to do it is ipso facto sinful.
1. The Rabbanan counter that they use that Pasuk for
R. Yonah's inference (by way of a Hekesh).
(e) R. Eliezer b. Shimon's reason is that Sukos need not be
mentioned, as that is the immediate context; its mention
tells us that its passage alone causes Bal T'acher.
2. R. Yonah taught that the goat-offerings of all the
festivals are equally effective at atoning for
impurity in the Beis haMikdash and its offerings.
(a) Question: How do R. Meir and R. Eliezer b. Yakov
understand the Torah's repeated listing of the three
(b) Answer: They use it for the exegesis of R. Elazar citing
R. Oshiya: It lists Shavuos together with Pesach to teach
us that the Shavuos has a seven-day opportunity for
Tashlumin (reparations for the korban), just like Pesach.
1. Question: Why not compare Shavuos to Sukos and give
it an eight-day period for Tashlumin?
(c) Question: If so, why is Sukos mentioned again?
2. Answer: The eighth day of Sukos is an independent
3. Question: The eighth day's status as an independent
festival was stated regarding P.Z.R.K.Sh.B. (Payis,
Zman, Regel, Korban, Shir and Berachah); but
regarding Tashlumin, it is part of Sukos, as stated
in a Mishnah?!
4. Replacement answer: It is easier to learn the
extended Tashlumin of Shavuos from the smaller
period of Pesach than from the longer period of
(d) Answer: To link it to Pesach and thereby deduce that just
as Pesach requires an overnight stay in Jerusalem, so