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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 58

1) The Gemara initially assumes that we declare a bloodstain on a woman's heel Tamei, because sometimes the heel touches her womb.

(a) What problem does the Gemara have with this, due to the Din of blood on the tip of her big toe, which is also Tamei?

(b) On what grounds does the Gemara reject the suggestion that the tip of the woman's toe may have touched her heel, which in turn, had previously touched her womb, and how does the Gemara prove this from the difference between a wound on the woman's neck and on her shoulder?

We have just said that we do not establish Tum'ah from one location to the other.
(c) What is the problem with that from the fact that blood found on the joints of her fingers (i.e. the back of her hands), and how does the Gemara resolve this problem?
2) We learnt in our Mishnah that if the woman finds blood on the inside of her calves, she is Temei'ah.
(a) Up to which point is considered the inside of the calf?

(b) Is the Makom Chavak itself considered the inside or the outside of the calf?

The Gemara asks whether, if a woman finds blood on her body in the shape of a circle - like a strap going round her leg , or a lot of spots of blood like a strap going down her leg, or just a lot of dots in no particular shape, or on the width of her thigh, she is Temei'ah or not.
(c) Why can we not resolve these Sha'alos from the Beraisa that we learnt earlier, which stated that if she found blood on her flesh, that she is Temei'ah?
If the Beraisa does not come to include the above cases, then what *does* it come to include?
(a) What did Rebbi Yanai rule in the case of the woman, who found blood on a part of the weaving-loom?

(b) How does the Gemara attempt to overturn his ruling?

(c) Why then, do we ultimately retain it?

4) If a tall woman wears the unexamined vest of a short woman or vice-versa, and a blood-stain is found in the area of the 'Beis Turfah' of the tall one, then both women are Tamei.
(a) Why is that?

(b) What will be the Din if the stain does not reach the 'Beis Turfah' of the tall woman, and why is that?

We have learnt in a Beraisa that, if a woman lends a clean garment to her friend, who then finds a blood-stain on it, the owner is Tehorah, but the borrower can rely on the stain coming from the owner.
(c) Why is that?
Rav Sheishes qualifies this Din, restricting it to the realm of monetary law.
(d) What exactly, does he say?
Answers to questions



(a) What is the Din regarding two women who are dealing - one after the other (see Tosfos d.h. 'Mai Shena') - with a bird, which contains the volume of only one Sela of blood, and they subsequently find one Sela of blood on the body of each one?

(b)What is the Din of a woman who, after walking down a street of butchers, discovers a bloodstain on the bottom garment of three that she is wearing?

(c) And what will be the Din if she finds a blood-stain on the *top* garment - in a case when she had *not* walked along a street of butchers?

6) The Mishnah writes that a woman can rely on anything such as 'if she Shechted an animal etc.; if she was dealing with bloodstains, or if she sat beside someone who was dealing with them'.
(a) What does this mean, and which case is included in this statement, according to Rebbi Meir and according to Rebbi - respectively?
The Tana Kama adds that she can also rely on a louse, if she killed one.
(b) Up to what size can a woman ascribe the bloodstain to a louse, according to Rebbi Chanina ben Antignos, and in which point does he disagree with the Tana Kama?

(c) What does the Tana mean when he permits a woman to rely on her husband or her son?

(d) What leniency did Rebbi Akiva practice with regard to a woman who had a wound that was healing, and why did he do that?

(a) What is the difference, according to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok, between a round blood-stain and an elongated one, which a woman finds on her Eid under the cushion?

(b) What is the Din if the woman may have sat next to people who are dealing with blood-stains, or if she is unsure whether she passed through a street of butchers or not? Do we say that, seeing as blood-stains are only mi'de'Rabbanan, she may have sat down, or passed through the street of butchers, and therefore she is Tehorah?

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel said, that according to his opinion, there was no end, whilst according to his colleagues, there was no end.
(c) What did he mean by that?

(d) Why did the words of Rebbi ben Antignos (with whom they all agreed) therefore seem more appealing?

8) In fact, the Rabbanan do not permit a blood-stain of any size.
(a) Up to which size do they permit it?
A Pishpesh is square shaped, its smell resembles its taste, and anybody who rolls it in his hands, adopts its smell.
(b) What are the ramifications of these three statements?

(c) What does Rav Ashi say about a city which has Chazeirim, and why?

9) Rav Huna says that the 'ki'Geris' of Rebbi Chanina ben Antignos means *less* than a Geris.
(a) What does Rav Chisda say about this, and how does the Gemara initially attempt to explain their Machlokes?
In the Gemara's first rejection, it explains that Rav Huna might even hold elsewhere that 'Ad ve'Ad bi'Ch'lal'.
(b) Then why does he hold *here* 'Ad ve'Lo Ad bi'Ch'lal'?

(c) Then how does the Gemara explain Rav Chisda saying 'Ad ve'Ad bi'Ch'lal' le'Kula'?

Answers to questions

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