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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 56

1) We learn from "Zovo Tamei" that a Zav's spittle is Tamei, and from "Hu" that the blood that comes from his mouth and from his Amah is Tahor.

(a) Why do we not say the other way round?

(b) Why then, is a Zavah's milk, which also gathers before flowing out, not Metamei?

(c) Why do we learn a Zavah's milk from a Zav's spittle, rather than from his Zov, which is Tamei because it gathers and flows out even though it cannot be re-absorbed into the body?

(a) How can Resh Lakish declare a dry Sheretz whose skeleton is intact, Tamei, in face of our Mishnah, which states that a Sheretz is only Metamei wet, but not dry?

(b) How is this derived from the two words "Bahem" and "Meihem"?

(c) When is a burnt Sheretz Metamei, and when is it not Metamei? And what is the source for this distinction?

(a) The Zov of a Zav, certain excretions from his mouth (such as phlegm), a Sheretz, Shichvas Zera and a Neveilah are all Metamei wet but not dry. How are all of these derived from the following (respectively): "Ror Besaro"; "Ki Yarok ha'Zav"; "be'Mosam"; "Shichvas Zera"; "Ki Yamus"?
The above must be so dry that even if they are soaked in water for twenty-four hours, they remain dry. Only then, do they lose their Din of Tum'ah?
(b) Must the water remain warm for the full duration of the twenty-four hours, or is it sufficient for it to be warm just at the outset?
Rebbi Yossi is lenient by the flesh of a corpse. According to him , it has the same Din as those listed in (a).
(c) How does Shmuel qualify this leniency?
(a) What Din does a Sheretz that is found in an alley-way, share with a bloodstain found on a woman's garment, regarding Tum'ah Lemafrei'a?

(b) Why does Rebbi Shimon differentiate between a Sheretz that was found wet and one that is found dry?

Answers to questions



(a) What is the two-pronged difference whether we explain the Chazakah up to the time that the streets were swept to mean a Chazakah 'that they were *swept*' - and that that is sufficient - or 'that they were *examined*' (and the same applies to the bloodstained garment of a Nidah - whether it is a Chazakah 'that the garment was *washed*' or 'that it was also *examined*')?
The Gemara resolves the Sha'aleh from Rebbi Meir.
(b) What does Rebbi Meir say?
Rebbi Meir concludes that if they did not examine the alley during sweeping, or the garment during laundering, then they will have lost, retroactively.
(c) What does Rebbi Acha say about that, and what does Rebbi reply to Rebbi Acha?
6) Rebbi Shimon said in our Mishnah, that if the Sheretz was wet when they found it, we are Metamei it retroactively only as far back as it could have remained wet until now.
(a) Why will this leniency not apply to a bloodstain?

(b) Why could water not also have fallen on a Sheretz.

7) 'All bloodstains which come from Rekem are Tahor'.
(a) Why?

(b) Why does Rebbi Yehudah hold that they are Tamei?

'All bloodstains that come from among the gentiles are Tahor' - even from Tarmud. Rebbi Yochanan deduces from this Stam Mishnah, that one may accept converts from Tarmud.
(c) What are the ramifications of this statement?
This clashes with another statement of Rebbi Yochanan, where he forbids the acceptance of converts from Tarmud?
(d) Why does he forbid the acceptance of converts from Tarmud?

(e) And how do we reconcile this with the fact that Rebbi Yochanan always rules like a Stam Mishnah?

8) 'ha'Ba'in ... mi'Bein Yisrael, Tamei; mi'Bein ha'Kutim, Rebbi Meir Metamei, va'Chachamim Metaharim, Mipnei she'Lo Nechshedu Al Kismeihen'
(a) Is it correct to give the Chachamim's reason as being because the Kutim were not genuine converts?

(b) Why are the bloodstains that are found in the streets of Yisrael Tehorin?

(c) What is the difference between bloodstains that come from the Kutim, and their bloodstains which are found in the streets of Yisrael, according to the Chachamim?

(d) What does Rebbi Meir hold in this case, and why?

(a) What is a 'Beis ha'Temei'os', and why are all bloodstains found there Tamei?

(b) Why was the 'Beis ha'Temei'os' of Kutim Metamei even be'Ohel?

(c) What does Rebbi Yehudah say about that?

10) The Kutim are believed to say that they did or did not, bury their Nefalim in a certain place; and that their animals did or did not give birth to a Bechor; and that a dead person is buried at a certain spot. Why are they not believed about Sechachos and Pera'os, or about a Beis ha'Peras?

Answers to questions

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