Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
1) Both the Rabbanan and Rebbi Shimon derive their respective opinions from Sotah. The Rabbanan learn from Sotah that a Safek Tum'ah has the Din of Vaday.
(a) How is that inherent in the Dinim of Sotah?2) Rebbi Shimon learns from Sotah that Safek Tum'ah (even in the case of Mikveh) is Tamei only in a Reshus ha'Yachid, but not in a Reshus ha'Rabim.
(a) But why is that? Surely, we should learn from a Sotah, who is considered Vaday, that Safek Tum'ah has a Din of Vaday, in which case there should be no distinction drawn between Reshus ha'Yachid and Reshus ha'Rabim?Alternatively, the reason for the Rabbanan's ruling (that a Safek Tum'ah - in the case of Mikveh - is Tamei, is due to the fact that we do not learn the end of Tum'ah (the case of Mikveh, where the person is trying to discard his Chezkas Tum'ah) from the beginning of Tum'ah (where the Sotah has a Chezkas Taharah, and we are trying to declare her Tamei).
(b) Why then, does Rebbi Shimon say (by Mikveh) that a Safek Tum'ah is not Vaday Tamei?3) Another way to explain Shamai's opinion is with the principle 'Ho'il ve'Ishah Margeshes be'Atzmah'.
(a) What does this mean, and why does Hillel disagree?4) A third explanation of Shamai's reasoning is that, had the blood fallen into her womb earlier, then it would have emerged then.
(a) What does Hillel say to that?5)
(a) What is the difference between the first reason in Shamai (Chezkas Taharah), and the two subsequent ones?
6) If Shamai's reason is because the blood should have emerged earlier, then why does he agree, that if someone took from one side of a box of Taharos, and they later found a dead Sheretz on the other side - the Taharos are Tamei retroactively?
7) Rava finally explains that Shamai is lenient by a Nidah, because of Bitul Piryah ve'Rivyah'.
(a) What does he mean?Rava's reasoning, like the reason that the blood would have emerged earlier, is written in a Beraisa.
(b) How can we reconcile both Beraisos?8) According to Chizkiyah, in the case of a box which was being used for Taharos (of which we spoke earlier), the Taharos are not Tamei retroactively, if a Sheretz was found in the opposite corner. The Gemara asks on Chizkiyah from the Beraisa where even Shamai agrees that they are Tamei retroactively.
The Gemara rejects the initial answer - that Chizkiyah (and Rebbi Yochanan, who argue in this point) are speaking about a box which has no rim.
(a) Why does the Gemara reject that answer, and what is the Gemara's first conclusive answer?In the second answer (to resolve the Kashya on Chizkiyah from Hillel and Shamai), the Gemara differentiates between a box that was examined and one that was not.
(d) What is now the Machlokes between Rebbi Yochanan and Chizkiyah?