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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 66



(a) A woman who sees blood three times because of Tashmish, has a Chazakah that she will always see with this man. She must obtain a divorce from him. She follows the same procedure with the second husband and with the third.

(b) If the same happens with the third husband, then she becomes obligated (from the fourth marriage and onwards) to examine herself before each Tashmish.

(c) She examines herself by inserting into her womb, a tube, into which she places a long stick with a wad of cotton wool attached to the end. If there is blood on the cotton wool, then we know that the the blood comes from the uterus and she is Temei'ah; if not, it comes from the side of the womb, and she is Tehorah.

(d) If this sighting of blood during Tashmish only occurs at certain times, or she has a wound on the uterus, then she can rely on those times (and is permitted to have Tashmish on other days) and on the wound (to render her Tehorah).

(e) If the blood from her wound has a different appearance than her Dam Nidus, then she cannot rely on the wound whenever the blood has the appearance of Dam Nidus.

2) According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, the uterus itself is a Makom Tamei, and it will therefore be Metamei even other blood that passes through it; whereas according to Rebbi, it is not a Makom Tamei, and blood that passes through it, will not become Tamei.


(a) The tube that the woman uses for Bedikah must be made of lead - a soft metal; and its lip had to be folded inside.

(b) There is no absolute Chazakah from the first husband, because maybe *his* Eiver Tashmish wounded her, but somebody else's will not.

(c) Nor is there an absolute Chazakah after the first time with the third husband, since every person tends to differ from one time to the next - sometimes strong, sometimes weak, etc.

(a) Rebbi instructed Avdan to give the woman (who tended to see blood during Tashmish) a shock. When subsequently, a clot of blood (the source of her troubles) fell out, he announced that the woman was duly cured.

(b) When Shmuel did the same with a woman who came to him with the same problem, and nothing happened, he declared that her blood tended to gather, and to only come out during Tashmish, which in turn, meant that there was nothing that could be done about it.

(c) Rebbi Yochanan advised the woman who was always seeing when she came up from Tevilah, to tell her friends about her problem. Why?
Because then their jealousy (caused by their close friendship - and which was the cause of her troubles) would turn into hatred (as a result of their disgust), and they would divert their thoughts from her.
Alternatively, he told her to inform her friends, so that they should Daven for her, and she would then get better.

(d) It is from "ve'Tamei Tamei Yikra" - that we learn the idea of telling others of one's woes (just like the Metzora would tell everyone about his Tzara'as) so encourage them to Daven on his behalf.

(a) By 'in the fields', the Gemara means a place where the people were not Benei Torah, and did not know how to work out exactly when the days of Nidus ended and those of Zivus began.

(b) What Rebbi was saying was that, if a woman sees one day, she must count six days plus the day that she saw - conforming the Din Torah regarding a woman who sees Nidus.
Should she see on two consecutive days, she counts six days plus the two days that she saw - that is a Chumra, in case the first day that she saw was the last day of Zivus, and the following day (on which she saw her second sighting), is the first day of Nidus.
And should she see on three consecutive days - we are Machmir, to assume that she saw three times in the days of Zivus, and she is obligated to count seven clean days.

(c) The Jewish women took upon themselves the stringency to require seven clean days even when they see the smallest drop of blood.

(a) Rava maintains that the Din of Koshi (pain, which relieves her of the Din of Yoledes be'Zivus) does not apply to a miscarriage; he also holds that with every birth there must be blood, whether the woman actually sees blood or not.

(b) The women's undertaking to count seven clean days was no more than a Minhag, and perhaps there were places which had not adopted the Minhag. Nevertheless, in Rava's case, she would have the Din of a Zavah (d'Oraysa).

(a) If a man proposes, the woman has deep emotional feelings, which cause a sighting of blood (known as 'Dam Chimud' - blood of desire) - provided of course, she accepts his proposal.

(b) Although a Ketanah does not normally see blood, Dam Chimud is different. Why is that? Because the cause of this blood is the feeling that a woman feels at that moment, and that feeling is shared by a Ketanah.




(a) A woman should not use Neser to wash her hair before Tevilas Mitzvah, because Neser pulls out hair, and the loose hair becomes entangled in the hair still attatched to her, thereby creating a Chatzitzah.
Nor should she use sand, which sticks to her hair and creates a Chaztitzah.

(b) Nor may she use cold water, because it causes the hair to mat, thereby preventing the dirt from coming out.

(c) A man should teach his wife and daughters to wash the parts of their body where there are folds (e.g. under their armpits).

(d) True, the water does not need to enter the folds on the woman's body; it must, however, be possible for the water to reach all parts of the body, would the folds not be there - meaning that, ignoring the folds, those parts of the body must be fit for the water to reach them - i.e. clean, without a Chatzitzah.

(a) Rebbis' maidservant found a bone stuck between her teeth after having Toveled, and Rebbi instructed her to Tovel again (from which we can learn, that the inside of the mouth has the same Din as the folds of the body).

(b) According to the first Lashon, if the woman Toveled straight *after* the Chafifah, then, even if she finds something stuck to her body, we assume that it came there after she Toveled, and she does not need to repeat the Chafifah and the Tevilah; whereas, if she allowed time to elapse between the Chafifah and the Tevilah, she will have to repeat both.

(c) According to the second Lashon, as long as she Toveled *on the same day* as the Chafifah, we will rely on the Chatzitzah having come there after the Tevilah, even if she did not Tovel immediately after the Chafifah.

(d) The practical difference between the two Leshonos will be in a case where she did not do the Chafifah close to the Tevilah (which she should have done, according to all opinions - See Tosfos and Tosfos ha'Rosh d.h. 'Ika Beinayhu') (According to the first Lashon, she will be obligated to Tovel again, whereas according to the second, she will not).
And also if she did the Chafifah at the end of the day, and the Tevilah at the beginning of nightfall (where according to the first Lashon, she will not need to Tovel again, whilst according to the second Lashon, she will).

(a) Gezeiras Merchetza'os is a Gezeirah that one may come to Tovel in a bath (which is not a valid Tevilah because one cannot Tovel in drawn water) - See Tosfos ha'Rosh d.h. ' Savar Rav Huna'.

(b) The reason that Rava forbids a woman to Tovel whilst standing on clay vessels, is because her fear of falling will prevent her from Toveling properly.

(c) Gezeiras Merchetza'os would not extend to large blocks of wood, since they are not usually found in a Mikvah (like benches and earthenware vessels are - see Tosfos d.h. 'Al Gabei').
But the reason that the fear of falling will prevent the woman from Toveling properly applies equally to blocks of wood.

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