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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 65


1) What the Beraisa means when it says that Rebbi gave a woman four nights in twelve months, is that the four nights that one normally gives a woman who gets married, Rebbi permitted to be spread out over a year - in other words, after the first Bi'ah, her husband went away; he returned three months later, and spent another night with her etc.


(a) They cannot all have taken place when she was a Ketanah, since according to Beis Hillel, a Ketanah is permitted until the wound heals, and no mention is made of four nights.

(b) Nor can they have all taken place when she was already a Na'arah, because, since when does Na'arus last more than six months?

(c) Nor can she have had two nights when she was a Ketanah, and two when she was a Na'arah, because Rav rules, that however many times a girl sees when she is a Ketanah, it is counted as one sighting - in which case, even if she saw two or three times when she was a Ketanah, we would have to give her another three nights after she becomes a Na'arah.

(d) So apparently, Rebbi's case was when she was with her husband once during Katnus, twice during Na'arus and then once during Bagrus. Now this is fine as long as a Bogeres normally gets *more* than one night (say two), because then her sighting during the days of Na'arus will reduce her days of Bagrus from two to one (just as a girl who sees when she is a Ketanah, reduces her days of Na'arus from four to three).
But if, as Rav says, a Bogeres is only allowed the one night, then the night that she spent with her husband when she was a Na'arah, should at least reduce the time she is permitted during Bagrus, from one night to the Be'ilas Mitzvah only?

(a) The Gemara refutes the Kashya on Rav, by establishing Rebbi's case when she had one night during Katnus, and three during Na'arus; in fact, she spent one night during Katnus, the second after the first two months of Na'arus, the third after four months of Na'arus and the fourth at the end of Na'arus (see Tosfos ha'Rosh d.h. 'le'Olam').
The Gemara initially dismissed the possibility of her having spent three times during Na'arus, because initially, it thought that the occasions that they were together were evenly spaced; Consequently, it would be impossible to find three times during Na'arus spaced out over nine months (since, as we have already explained, Na'arus only lasts six months).

(b) Minyamin Saskana'ah thought that Rav allows the night of Be'ilas Mitzvah, even to a Bogeres who has seen, and he was about to issue such a ruling.

(c) He died before being able to put his ruling into practice.

(d) Shmuel remarked how Hashem looks after the Tzadikim and prevents them from inadvertently sinning. This applied to Rav, whom Hashem protected for being responsible for a wrong Pesak, which Minyamin almost issued in his name.

4) We learn from the Pasuk "Gam Ani" etc., that, as a person gets older, his sustenance diminishes.

5) Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel explain the Onah Sheleimah of Beis Hillel as a night plus half a day.




(a) Someone who wishes to be Metaher his wine or olive-press, is obligated to leave the straw and bulrush ropes for one year, before Toveling them.

(b) The Tana Kama requires a full year before the ropes in question can be Toveled. But according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, it is from harvest to harvest, even if the following harvest is earlier or later than the previous one.

(c) Rebbi Yossi permits them to be used immediately, by Kashering them in boiling water, or by heating them in hot olive-water.

(d) Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel quotes Rebbi Yossi as saying that he may leave them under a pipe of flowing (cold) water or in a fountain of fast-flowing water - for the duration of one Onah.

7) Also with regard to Yayin Nesech, leaving the vessels for one year will render them Kasher, without actually having to Kasher them.


(a) An Onah consists of one day in Spring and Autumn, when the days and the nights are of equal duration. But in Summer and Winter, when the days and the nights are of different time-periods, then an Onah consists of half a day and half a night (Apparently, an Onah is a fixed twelve hour period, and not a night or a day, irrespective of the time of year).

(b) But did the same Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel (whose words Rebbi Yochanan is explaining) not say earlier that an Onah consists of a night plus a half a day?

(c) The Gemara's first answer is that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel gives her either the night of Nisan and Tishri (Spring and Autumn), or half of the day plus half of the night of Teives and Tamuz (Winter and Summer).

(d) In the second answer, the Gemara takes into account the inadequate length of time of an Onah consisting of one night - which a girl who has seen, ought to get. Why is it inadequate?
Because it was quite a normal occurrence for the marriage to be delayed, whilst the Mechutanim were arguing over the Kesubah; so that, by the time they have finished, little of the night would remain for the married couple to be together. Therefore, says Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, they gave her half the day in addition to the night (See Kesuvos, Daf Beis Amud Aleph - the note beside Tosfos d.h. 'le'Yom ha'Revi'i').

(a) Rav and Shmuel base their strict ruling (which obligates the married couple to separate immediately after the termination of the Be'ilas Mitzvah) on Raboseinu in another Beraisa.

(b) No! A Ba'al Nefesh should not terminate in the middle of the Be'ilas Mitzvah. Why not?
Because this will cause him to desist from the Be'ilas mitzvah altogether; this in turn, because he will think that the reason that he is being encouraged to separate, is because his newly-wed wife must have seen blood.

(a) According to Rebbi Meir, a Ketanah who continues to see after four nights, and a Na'arah after the first night, are obligated to examine to examine the blood to ascertain whether it is Dam Besulim, and not Dam Nidus.

(b) Rebbi Meir does indeed follow the stringent ruling of Beis Shamai in this instance.

(c) Rebbi Meir maintains that, should a Ketanah see blood after the initial four nights, but before the wound has healed, she must examine the blood to make sure that it is the blood of Besulim, and not that of Nidus. And the same will apply to a Na'arah after the first night.

(d) Dam Nidus is red (Adom), Dam Besulim is not; Dam Nidus is filthy, Dam Besulim is pure; Dam Nidus comes from the side, Dam Besulim from the middle (and with this latter statement, the Rabbanan do not argue.

11) The Rabbanan, there is no difference between Dam Nidus and Dam Besulim.

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