ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafNidah 38
(a) Aba Shaul in the name of Rebbi maintains that the Din of Koshi extends
even to the days when she is fit to become a Zavah Ketanah.
(b) If Rebbi Meir declares Tahor all the forty or fifty days of Koshi, then
the Kashya on Rebbi Levi and Aba Shaul, according to whom the leniency is
restricted to the days of Zivus only, is apparent.
(c) The Gemara however, replies that Rebbi Meir is not Metaher all the
forty or fifty days, but only the days of Zivus during that period.
(a) A woman sees blood during the last 2 days of Zivus, the 7 days of
Nidus, 2 after Nidus, 50 of Koshi, 80 of the days of Tum'ah and Tohar of a
girl after the birth, 7 of Nidus and 2 of Zivus. We have here 150 days that
a woman sees blood, without becoming a Zavah.
(b) It is possible for a woman to keep on miscarrying after each fifty days
of Koshi, without ever becoming a Zavah.
(c) According to Rebbi Meir, Koshi only prevents a woman from becoming a
Zavah before a birth, but not before a miscarriage.
(d) The Tana of the second Beraisa is not concerned with the fifty days of
The Chidush is to teach us that it is possible for a woman's womb to open
without a sighting of blood, because, if it was not possible, then the day
of birth (which follows two days of Zivus) would inevitably be the third
day of Zivus, and she would be a Zavah.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah holds that if she suffered Koshi in the eighth month, she
is a Zavah; it is only in the ninth month that Koshi renders her Tehorah.
(b) If she was Makshah two days in the eighth month, she is Temei'ah, even
if she then gave birth at the beginning of the ninth month, she is a
Yoledes be'Zov (in which case, the Koshi has not even gained her one day).
Whereas if she saw only *one* day at the end of the eighth month, and two
at the beginning of the ninth, then she will be Tehorah, even if she gave
birth at the on the last day of the ninth month (in which case, the Koshi
has gained her more than a month.
(c) If the seed began to germinate immediately, she will give birth on the
271st. day (nine months, each consisting of thirty days, with the birth on
the following day).
Sometimes, the seed begins to germinate only on the second day, in which
case the baby will be born one day later, on the 272nd. day. It is also
possible for the seed to begin germinating on the third day, and the baby
will then be born on the 273rd. day.
From the fourth day and onwards, the seed will no longer germinate.
(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah, a ninth month baby can be born even at the
beginning of the ninth month - it does not require the full month. In other
words, it can be born somewhere between 240 and 270 days, an obvious clash
with Shmuel, in whose opinion a baby cannot be born before 270 days (nine
(b) Shmuel holds like the early Chasidim, who used to abstain from Tashmish
from Wednesday till Friday, in order to ensure that the baby should not be
born on Shabbos, which would create the need to break Shabbos.
(c)&(d) At the birth of Shmuel (ha'Navi) the Pasuk writes "va'Yehi
li'Tekufos ha'Yamim"; "Tekufos" is two periods of three months each, and
"Yamim" means two days, because the minimum of plural is two (following the
principle "Tafasta Merubeh Lo Tafasta, Tafasta Mu'at Tafasta" - every
larger amount includes the smaller amount).
(a) Rebbi Yossi and Rebbi Shimon learn from '"ve'Tam'ah *Shevu'ayim*
ke'Nidasah": 'ke'Nidasah" - ve'Lo ke'Zivasah'; and which Shiur?
"Shevu'ayim", two weeks.
(b) A woman could see 2 days at the end of Zivus, the 7 days of Nidus, 2
days after Nidus, 14 days of Koshi, according to Rebbi Yossi and Rebbi
Shimon. More than 14 days of Koshi are considered Tamei according to this
opinion, and if one were to add one day before the fourteen days of Koshi,
she would be a Zavah Gedolah.
(c) If their is no baby, there is no Koshi, and she will be Temei'ah after
*three* days, not twenty six.
(d) Rava argues that if the Beraisa writes that there is *no* baby, how can
one change it to 'there *is* a baby'? True, Beraisos are sometimes
misquoted, but not to the extent that a 'yes' becomes a 'no'.
Rava therefore amends the Beraisa to read that 'there can be no Koshi of
twenty-six days where there is a baby, and, where there is no baby, then
even after three sightings, she will be a Zavah.
(a) It is possible for a woman to be Makshah Leileid either if she
conceived during the days of Tohar of a girl, or if one of two twins
remained in the womb from the seventh to the ninth month - as in the case
of Yehudah and Chizkiyah.
(b) The Rabbanan learn that if before birth, when we are strict by the
blood of Shofi (relief from pain), yet we are lenient by the blood of
Koshi; so after birth, when we are lenient by Shofi, we should certainly be
lenient by Koshi.
(c) Rebbi Eliezer argues that that Kal va'Chomer is fine with regard to
Koshi of the days of Zivus, but how can the Rabbanan apply the Kal
va'Chomer even to the days of Nidus too (Rebbi Eliezer himself does not
hold of the Kal va'Chomer at all - even in the days of Zivus, as we shall
at the end of the Sugya, but he is saying to the Chachamim that they should
at least agree with him in the days of Nidus)
(a) At first, the Rabbanan learnt the Kal va'Chomer - Koshi from Shofi; If
Shofi, which before the birth is Tamei, is Tahor after the birth, then
Koshi, which is Tahor before the birth, should certainly be Tahor after the
birth. However, in that case, Rebbi Eliezer's Kashya of 'Dayo' is blatant,
since, when all's said and done, we are learning Koshi from Koshi -
including Nidus as well as Zivus; so even the Rabbanan will have to admit
that we can only learn from the Koshi of *Zivus*, which is Tahor before the
birth, but not from that of *Nidus*, which is Tamei even before the birth.
In the second version, however, the 'Dayo' is not quite as blatant, since
we are not learning Koshi from Koshi, but the corollary of Koshi to Shofi
after the birth from that of before the birth. And since Shofi after birth
is Tahor even in the days of Nidus (and our main Limud is from Shofi), they
discount 'Dayo' in this case.
(b) Nevertheless, Rebbi Eliezer still contends with ', Dayo', because, in
his opinion, if 'Dayo' is applicable to any part of the Kal va'Chomer that
is being learnt (even if it is only regarding a secondary part), then it is
(a) Just like we learn from "Damah", that a woman only becomes a Zavah if
the blood flows from her naturally, but not if it flows because of the
baby, so too, should we learn from the Pasuk "ve'Taharah mi'Mekor Dameha",
that Dam Tohar is confined to blood that flows from her naturally, but not
because of the baby.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer maintains that all blood that she sees after birth is
Tamei (if it is not the natural blood of Yemei Tohar), both the blood of
Zivus and that of Nidus, because the Torah writes "Teishev" - from which
Rebbi Eliezer learns not to differentiate between the blood of Nidus and
that of Zivus. Consequently, since she is Temei'ah during the days of
Nidus, she is also Temei'ah during the days of Zivus.